How Women Won the Right to Vote in 19th-Century Colorado

(Left-to-right) Carrie Clyde Holly, Clara Cresshingham and Frances Klock They had to convince a majority of men in the state, not just legislators, that they should share political power with women. By Dr. Jennifer Frost / 10.14.2018 Associate Professor of History University of Auckland “Western Women Wild With Joy Over Colorado’s Election,” journalist and suffragist Caroline[…]

Hippolytus: Asexuality and Ancient Greece

“Phèdre et Hippolyte” (1802), by Pierre-Narcisse Guérin / Wikimedia Commons Classical discussions often get caught between that problematic binary of social constructionism vs essentialism. By Dr. Chris Mowat / 05.17.2018 Visiting Fellow in Classics Newcastle University Myth was a great tool with which the ancient Greeks were able to think about themselves and their place[…]

Linguistic Evidence Support for Dating the Homeric Epics

Linguistic dating is in close agreement with historians’ and classicists’ beliefs derived from historical and archaeological sources.        By (left-to-right) Dr. Eric Lewin Altschuler, Dr. Andreea S Calude, Dr. Andrew Meade, and Dr. Mark Pagel / 02.18.2013 Altschuler: Departments of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, and Microbiology and Molecular Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, University Hospital[…]

Ancient Minoan Burial Rituals: ‘Reading’ the Hagia Triada Sarcophagus

The Hagia Triada sarcophagus at the Archaeological Museum of Heraklion (photo: C messier, CC BY-SA 3.0) This sarcophagus is among the best of narrative-style representations of religious customs in ancient Minoa. By Dr. Senta German / 08,17.2018 Faculty of Classics Andrew W Mellon Foundation Teaching Curator, Ashmolean Museum University of Oxford A Coffin for Royalty? Hagia Triada sarcophagus, c. 1400[…]

The Gilded Age in America: Rapid Growth as a Double-Edged Sword

Mill children in Macon, photo by Lewis Wickes Hine, 1909 / Library of Congress, Wikimedia Commons From the ashes of the American Civil War sprung an economic powerhouse. Edited by Matthew A. McIntosh / 10.13.2018 Public Historian Brewminate Editor-in-Chief The Golden Spike: Does it really symbolize the completion of the transcontinental railroad? / Roadside America The[…]

The Golden Age of American Railroading

Celebration of completion of the First Transcontinental Railroad at what is now Golden Spike National Historic Site, Promontory Summit, Utah, photo by Andrew J. Russell (1869) / National Park Service, Wikimedia Commons In spite of technological progress, the “Gilded Age” after the Civil War was one of widespread corruption in which “robber barons” were supreme. After the American Civil[…]

Grandville: Visions and Dreams in 19th-Century French Art

The Wanderings of a Comet, from Another World, 1844 / Internet Archive With its dreamlike inversions and kaleidoscopic cast of anthropomorphic objects, animals, and plants, the world of French artist J. J. Grandville is at once both delightful and disquieting. Patricia Mainardi explores the unique work of this 19th-century illustrator now recognised as a major precursor[…]

The Netherlands Drawn from Life in the 17th Century

  Coastal Landscape, ca. 1599. Pen and brown, by Annibale Carracci / Public Domain Examining the phenomenon of seventeenth-century Dutch landscape prints that were “drawn from life.” By Dr. Boudewijn Bakker Art Historian Former Director, Stadsarchief Amsterdam Abstract This essay examines the phenomenon of seventeenth-century Dutch landscape prints that were “drawn from life.”  The nascent national pride of the[…]

The Nabataeans of Ancient Arabia

  A group of tombs at Mada’in Saleh in present-day Saudi Arabia. (Photo: Courtesy of Dr. Nehmé.) The Nabataeans of ancient Arabia were the middlemen in the long distance trade between the ancient Mediterranean and South Arabia.  By James Wiener / 09.20.2016 Communications Director Ancient History Encyclopedia Known the world over for their hauntingly beautiful cities of Petra and Mada’in[…]

The History of Pre-Islamic Arabia

Temple of Bel complex in the background and the agora on left center in Palmyra, Syria / Photo by Bernard Gagnon, Wikimedia Commons Nomadic Bedouin tribes dominated the Arabian Peninsula since around 3000 BCE. Edited by Matthew A. McIntosh Public Historian Brewminate Editor-in-Chief The Nomadic Tribes of Arabia The nomadic pastoralist Bedouin tribes inhabited the[…]

Edward Jenner: The History of Smallpox and Vaccination

With the rapid pace of vaccine development in recent decades, the historic origins of immunization are often forgotten.  By Dr Stefan Riedel, M.D. PhD Assistant Professor, Department of Pathology Johns Hopkins University Introduction Figure 1: Edward Jenner (1749–1823). Photo courtesy of the National Library of Medicine In science credit goes to the man who convinces the[…]

The Origin of Vaccinations

In May 1796, Edward Jenner was asked to inoculate an eight-year-old pauper child named James Phipps. By Dr. Arthur W. Boylston Pathologist In 1796, seventy-five years after Lady Mary Wortley Montague and Charles Maitland introduced inoculation into England (Huth 2005; Boylston 2012), Edward Jenner performed an experiment that would eventually lead to the eradication of smallpox[…]

Ancient Jericho: A Walled Oasis

Creative Commons The site of Jericho, just north of the Dead Sea and due west of the Jordan River, is one of the oldest continuously lived-in cities in the world. By Dr. Senta German / 08.08.2015 Faculty of Classics Andrew W Mellon Foundation Teaching Curator, Ashmolean Museum University of Oxford A Natural Oasis Tell es-sultan, Jerico archaeological site[…]

Ancient City Walls and Barriers

A section of Hadrian’s Wall near Carlisle / Photo by zoonabar, Flickr, Creative Commons Walls have traditionally been built for defense, privacy, and protection. By Dr. Joshua J. Mark / 09.02.2009 Professor of Philosophy Marist College Introduction The English word ‘wall’ is derived from the Latin, ‘vallus’ meaning ‘a stake’ or ‘post’ and designated the wood-stake and earth[…]

Julius Caesar as Ethnographer

Wikimedia Commons Convention and personal interest compelled Caesar to tum his hand to ethnography. By Dr. B.M. Bell Rhodes University Caesar’s campaigns in Gaul, Germany and Britain occasioned great excitement in Rome. For Catullus “the Gaulish Rhine, the formidable Britons, remotest of men” represented “the memorials of great Caesar” (Cat. 11.10-11). Cicero too considered Caesar’s[…]

Titus Lartius, First Dictator of the Roman Republic

Titus Lartius was one of the leading men of the early Roman Republic, twice consul, and the first Roman dictator. Edited by Matthew A. McIntosh / 10.12.2018 Public Historian Brewminate Editor-in-Chief Background The Lartii, whose nomen is also spelled Larcius and Largius, were an Etruscan family at Rome during the early years of the Republic. Their nomen is derived from the Etruscan praenomen Lars. Titus’ brother, Spurius Lartius, was one[…]

The Historical Development of the Interface between Law, Medicine, and Psychiatry

From the Guild-Book of the Barber-Surgeons of the city of York / British Library, Public Domain Medicine and law were related from early times. This relation resulted as a necessity of protecting communities from the irresponsible acts of impostors. By Magdaleen Swanepoel, LLB, LLD Professor of Law University of South Africa (UNISA) History, despite its wrenching[…]

Catholicism in the Early South

Saint Matthew’s Catholic Church in Mobile, Alabama / Photo by Altairisfar, Wikimedia Commons The Catholic Church in America began in a southern context, and Catholicism was the first form of Christianity to take root in the American South. By Dr. Maura Jane Farrelly Associate Professor of American Studies Brandeis University Introduction The Catholic Church in[…]

The Historical Context of the Protestant Reformation

A bishop granting indulgences in a fresco by Lorenzo Lotto, c. 1524 (Wikimedia Commons) To understand the rapid spread of Luther’s ideas, a brief account of the role that the Church played in Medieval society is necessary. By Jay Gundacker Graduate Student, Institute for Comparative Literature and Society Columbia University Martin Luther To understand the[…]

Welcome to the New Meghalayan Age: How It Fits with Earth’s Geologic History

India’s Mawmluh Cave, home of the reference stalagmite for the newly named age. Abhijeet Khedgikar/Shutterstock.com 2018 brought the announcement of a new geologic age that covers the last 4,200 years. How do scientists divide up Earth’s timeline and what do these demarcations mean? By Dr. Steven Petsch / 09.11.2018 Associate Professor of Geosciences University of[…]

How FDR’s Presidency Inspired Term Limits

Franklin Roosevelt’s Gubernatorial portrait, by Jacob H. Perskie, 1941 / Wikimedia Commons The Founding Fathers considered term limits, but ultimately rejected the idea. It wasn’t until FDR’s unprecedented four terms that lawmakers reconsidered. By Dr. Peter Feuerherd / 04.12.2018 Professor of Journalism St. John’s University The Twenty-Second Amendment to the Constitution, proposed by Congress in[…]

Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Pulpit

Judging from his public speeches, Franklin D. Roosevelt–aka FDR–may have been our most religious 20th century President. By Matthew Wills / 11.18.2015 Ronald Isetti argues in Presidential Studies Quarterly that it was Franklin Delano Roosevelt, which may surprise many. Isetti analyses FDR’s speeches as “political sermons and cultic orations,” dependent on “the language, stories, and symbols of[…]

Medieval Tools of Warfare

A 1540s depiction of a judicial combat in Augsburg in 1409, between Marshal Wilhelm von Dornsberg and Theodor Haschenacker. Dornsberg’s sword broke early in the duel, but he proceeded to kill Haschenacker with his own sword. / Bayrische Staatsbibliothek Cod. icon. 393, Wikimedia Commons Warrior aristocrats dominated medieval society. By Dr. Hans Peter Broedel Graduate[…]

The Julio-Claudian Imperial Cult at the Sebasteion at Aphrodisias

The Sebasteion, excavated in 1979-81, was a grandiose temple complex dedicated to Aphrodite and the Julio-Claudian emperors and was decorated with a lavish sculptural program of which much survives. / Photo by wneuheisel, Wikimedia Commons Augustus and the Julio-Claudian emperors’ successful reign over the vast Roman Empire were due primarily to provincial loyalty and acquiescence.[…]

The Audience Hall of Darius and Xerxes in Persepolis

Growth of the Achaemenid Empire under different kings / Wikimedia Commons The great audience hall of the Persian kings Darius and Xerxes presents a visual microcosm of the Achaemenid empire. By Dr. Jeffrey A. Becker / 01.24.2016 Professor of Classical and Near Eastern Studies Binghamton University Introduction Kylix depicting a Greek hoplite slaying a Persian inside, by[…]