Early Modern European Settler Colonies

Portuguese Fort Aguada, Goa, India / Photo by Abhijit Nandi, Creative Commons Beginning in the early modern age, European settler colonies were founded first beyond the Atlantic Ocean and later in the Pacific, but not in Asia. By Dr. Christoph Marx / 06.06.2017 Professor of History Universität Duisburg-Essen Introduction Beginning in the early modern age, European settler[…]

European Fashion and Cultural Transfer, 1450-1950

Hendrick Avercamp’s ‘Ice Scene’ (c. 1610). Wikimedia Commons The function of fashion as a form of cultural transfer in Europe-wide social processes between 1450 and 1950. By Dr. Gabriele Mentges / 06.03.2011 Professor of the Cultural History of Clothing/Fashion/Textiles Institute for Arts and Material Culture Technische Universität Dortmunt Introduction This article discusses the function of fashion as a[…]

European Perceptions of America since the 17th Century

1750 map of America / museumoutlets.com By Dr. Marcus Gräser / 02.08.2011 Professor of History Institut für Neuere Geschichte und Zeitgeschichte Johannes Kepler University Abstract Early on, the USA – “America” – became a point of reference within European consciousnesses against which European societies could analyse themselves. At the same time, America acted as a repository[…]

Ancient DNA Reveals How Europeans Developed Light Skin and Lactose Intolerance

Slurp and thank the Yamnaya. Samantha Jade Royds/Flickr, CC BY-SA Shedding light on how have traits that were rare in African ancestors became common in Europe. By Dr. Daniel Zadik / 07.10.2015 Postdoctoral Researcher in Genetics University of Leicester Food intolerance is often dismissed as a modern invention and a “first-world problem”. However, a study analysing the genomes of 101 Bronze-Age Eurasians reveals[…]

Ancient DNA Sheds Light on the Origin of Europeans

Ancient DNA can tell you a lot more than skull shape about the origins of the first Europeans. Flickr/Sebastian Dooris , CC BY Capturing ancient genomes gives us valuable information.    By Dr. David Lambert (left) and Dr. Micheal Westaway (right) / 11.15.2014 Lambert: Dean Research Griffith Sciences and Professor of Evolutionary Biology Westaway: Senior Research Fellow Griffith University Much[…]

Visions of Paradise: Illuminated Manuscripts and Infinite Gems from Medieval India and Europe

Krishna Uprooting the Parijata Tree from a Bhagavata Purana manuscript, 1525–50, made in Delhi region or Rajasthan, India. Opaque watercolor and ink on paper, 7 1/4 × 9 1/2 in. Los Angeles County Museum of Art, from the Nasli and Alice Heeramaneck Collection, Museum Associates Purchase, M.72.1.26. Photo © Museum Associates/LACMA Luxury objects from Europe, the Middle East,[…]

Russification-Sovietization in East-Central Europe after 1917

Soviet leaders Red Square, Moscow, USSR celebrating the second anniversary of the October Revolution / Photo by L.Y. Leonidov, Wikimedia Commons By Dr. Theodore R. Weeks / 12.03.2010 Professor of History Southern Illinois University Abstract Under tsarist and Soviet rule respectively, russification and sovietization were intended to ensure state control over a diverse population. The Russian[…]

The Americas, Europe, and Africa before 1492

Overview of Pueblo Bonito / Photo by John Wiley, Wikimedia Commons By Dr. P. Scott Corbett, et.al.  Professor of History Ventura College Introduction In Europe supported by Africa and America (1796), artist William Blake, who was an abolitionist, depicts the interdependence of the three continents in the Atlantic World; however, he places gold armbands on the[…]

The Ottoman History of South-East Europe

Armenians marched by Ottoman soldiers / Wikimedia Commons By Dr. Markus Koller / 01.10.2012 Professor of History Ruhr-Universität Bochum Introduction The era of Ottoman Rule, which began in the fourteenth century, is among the most controversial chapters of South-East European history. Over several stages of conquest, some of them several decades long, large parts of[…]

European Influence of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars

“We should make sure that the revolution is transmitted!” / CC-BY-NC 2.0 doc(q)man By Dr. Frederick C. Schneid / 01.27.2011 Herman and Louise Smith Professor of History High Point University Abstract The French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars represented continuity in European diplomacy from the eighteenth to the nineteenth century, but witnessed considerable change in the way that[…]

Birth of Levée en Masse in 1793 France and Its European Development

Departure of the Conscripts in 1807, by Louis-Léopold Boilly, 1808 / Musée Carnavalet via Wikimedia Commons By Dr. Ambrogio Caiani / 12.03.2010 Senior Lecturer in History University of Kent Introduction When faced, in 1793, with the prospect of defeat, the National Convention issued an appeal for a levée en masse, which, theoretically, placed the entire population at[…]

Chambers of Art and Wonders in Early Modern Europe

The Archduke Leopold Wilhelm in His Gallery at Brussels, by David Teniers the Younger (1610-1690) 1651. / Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna As collection rooms based on a universalist approach to art and artifacts, the chambers of art and wonders (Wunderkammern) were characteristic of the pre-modern era. By Gabriele Beßler / 07.16.2015 Art Historian Abstract As collection[…]

European Encounters in the Age of Expansion

German Emperor Wilhelm II (1859–1941), centre, visiting a group of Ethiopians at Hagenbeck’s Tierpark in Hamburg in 1909 / Wikimedia Commons By Dr. Guida Abbattista / 01.24.2011 Professor of Modern History University of Trieste Abstract This article reconstructs the expansion of Europe overseas and the multiple forms of encounters between European navigators, explorers, conquerors, colonizers, merchants and[…]

Technology in Early Modern Europe

By Dr. Marcus Popplow / 07.06.2017 Professor of the History of Technical-Scientific Civilization Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) Die Forschungsuniversität in der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Introduction In debates surrounding Europe’s shared history, the role of technology is hardly addressed. As a contributing factor, it appears too far removed from political or cultural processes of integration. At the same[…]

A Background to the History of Europe

A fresco from Pompeii showing a scene from the myth of Europa. This scene represents the capture of Europa by Zeus who had disguised himself as a bull. / Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Napoli via Wikimedia Commons Edited by Matthew A. McIntosh / 03.16.2018 Historian Brewminate Editor-in-Chief Though archaeological evidence shows a Europe of continuous settlement over[…]

Regions of Europe and Historical Patterns

Edited by Matthew A. McIntosh / 03.12.2018 Historian Brewminate Editor-in-Chief Identifying the Boundaries Europe is a continent of peninsulas, islands, and varied landforms. The traditional boundaries of the European continent include the North Atlantic Ocean to the west and Russia up to the Ural Mountains to the east. Since the Soviet Union’s collapse in 1991, Russia[…]

‘Historical Mesoregion’: A Concept in Cultural Studies and Historiography

Location of geographical mesoregion of Mezőföld (red) and macroregion of Alföld (gray) within subdivisions of Hungary. / By Miaow Miaow, Wikimedia Commons By Dr. Stefan Troebst / 03.06.2012 Professor of Cultural History and Eastern Europe University of Leipzig Introduction The research design of “historical meso-regions” (Geschichtsregionen) is a transnational comparative method that has been developed in the historical subdiscipline of[…]

A Transcultural History of Europe – Perspectives from the History of Migration

Migrants are escorted through fields by police as they are walked from the village of Rigonce to Brezice refugee camp on October 23, 2015 in Rigonce, Slovenia. Thousands of migrants marched across the border between Croatia into Slovenia as authorities intensify their efforts to attempt to cope with Europe’s largest migration of people since World[…]

The European Book Market from Antiquity to Today

By Dr. Ernst Fischer / 12.03.2010 Department of Book Science Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz Abstract The medium of the book, as a portable store of knowledge, has always made a central contribution to the rise of cultural areas. Dependent by its nature on language, the book market rendered pan-European communication possible over the centuries during which[…]

The Beginning and Growth of European Overseas Imperial Ambitions in the 16th Century

Hernán Cortés / Wikimedia Commons By Dr. Reinhard Wendt / 12.03.2010 University Professor Head of the Department of Modern European and Non-European History University of Hagen Introduction The development of European world rule, founded in the 16th century, exhibited considerable regional and temporal deviation in terms of its extent and character. The framework of colonialism and[…]

Economy and Trade in the Western World from the Early Modern to Modern Periods

Waldseemüller (Martin Waldseemüller) map from 1507 is the first map to include the name “America” and the first to depict the Americas as separate from Asia. There is only one surviving copy of the map, which was purchased by the Library of Congress in 2001 for $10 million. By Dr. Philipp Rössner / 02.03.2017 Lecturer in Early Modern History The[…]

Barracks and Conscription: Civil-Military Relations in Europe from 1500

By Dr. John Childs / 08.01.2011 Emeritus Professor of Military History University of Leeds Abstract To operate efficiently, armed forces require physical separation from civilian society, achieved usually through the employment of mercenaries, conscription and the provision of discrete military accommodation. War became more “popular” during the religious conflicts between 1520 and 1648 diluting civil-military[…]