Egyptian hieroglyphics depict the pouring out of beer / Wikimedia Commons
Women held many important and influential positions in Ancient Egypt and typically enjoyed many of the legal and economic rights given to the men within their respective social class.
By (left-to-right) Radwa Khalil, Dr. Ahmed A. Moustafa, Dr. Marie Z. Moftah, and Dr. Ahmed A. Karim / 01.05.2017
Khalil: Researcher in Psychology and Methods, Jacobs University
Moustafa: Associate Professor in Cognitive and Behavioural Neuroscience, Western Sydney University
Moftah: Department of Zoology, Alexandria University
Karim: Professor of Health Psychology and Neurorehabilitation, University of Tubingen
Egyptian Women in Ancient Times
In Ancient Egypt, social dignity was not based on gender, but rather on social status (Jeyawordena, 1986; Robins, 1993; Piccione, 2003; Nardo, 2004; Hunt, 2009; Cooney, 2014). This means that women held many important and influential positions in Ancient Egypt and typically enjoyed many of the legal and economic rights given to the men within their respective social class.
Unlike other ancient societies, women in Ancient Egypt had a high degree of equal opportunity and freedom (Nardo, 2004). Ancient Egyptians (women and men) were firmly equal. Interestingly, ancient sources indicate that women were qualified to sue and obtain contracts incorporating any lawful settlements, such as marriage, separation, property, and jobs (Hunt, 2009). Some of these rights are not given to women in modern-day Egypt. Furthermore, the historian Herodotus witnessed an exceptional display of humanity and equality in Ancient Egypt that was not present in other ancient societies (Tyldesley, 1995).
Art and Music
Gifted women actively participated in the weaving, grieving, and music organizations in Ancient Egypt. Moreover, being a professional in entertainment was another job that was occupied by women in Ancient Egypt (Hunt, 2009).Yet; there is no proof that they ever regulated male laborers, except the most senior imperial women. Hekenu and Iti were two eminent musicians of the Old Kingdom (Figure1A). These women were popular to the point that they even had their performances painted on other people’s tombs, which was a special privilege since it was common to only incorporate individuals from the perished family in the scenes (Hunt, 2009).
Figure 1: Examples of remarkable Ancient Egyptian women in art, music, science, and medicine. Panel (A) depicts the harpist “Hekenu” and the Cantor “Iti” (Source: The Egyptian Museum in Cairo, Egypt). Panel (B) shows the statues of “Nebet” and her husband from the British Museum in London originally belonging to the tomb of Nebamuncon (1300 B.C.). The Papyri and temple picture on the right side demonstrate the passion of Ancient Egyptian female musicians. Panel (C) illustrates the female Goddess Maat, who was the symbol of truth during the Ancient Egyptian time. Her energy was supposed to be strongly distributed and spread on the Earth (Source: The original drawing of this papyrus belongs to the temple decoration at Dendera). Panel (D) illustrates Peseshet on the left side and Merit-Ptah on the right side. Both were renowned Ancient Egyptian female physicians. Panel (E) is a drawing on the Temple wall of Tapputi-Belatekallim, who was an influential scientist and chemist in Ancient Egypt (Source: The British Museum, London, UK).
Other recorded occupations of Ancient Egyptian women were hair specialists, supervisors of the wig workshop, treasurers, writers, songstress, weavers, dancers, musicians, grievers, priestess’, and even directors of the imperial kingdom. One such recorded occupation was that of “Judge and Vizier to Pharaoh.” This position was held by a woman called “Nebet of the Old kingdom.” The “vizier” was the most capable individual after the lord Pharaoh, going about as his “correct hand man.” However, it is thought that “Nebet’s husband directed in the post whilst she held the title” (Figure1B).
Unlike other societies, Ancient Egyptian women were not subservient to men, were able to choose suitable men for a wedding, and were also able to separate from their husbands (Jacobs, 1996; Hunt, 2009).
Reported contracts affirmed fairness between men and women, expressing women’s rights and ensured equality in employment. For example, an annuity contract found in an archive of Ptolemaic “Family from Suit Nefertiti” illustrates how a divorced Egyptian woman got what was relating to her legacy which she used to share amid marriage. Ancient Egyptian women also had the capacity of unreservedly arranging and fulfilling the terms of her possessions in her contract before going into any marriage plan (Tyldesley, 1994).
Several Papyri indicated the capacity of Ancient Egyptian women to gain wealth independently from their husbands. On the other hand, a husband could lawfully treat his wife as his legal “child,” if he did not want to give any of his riches to his relatives. This way, the wife could acquire the greater part of his riches if they had no children together, or 66% if they had children. The Ancient Egyptian culture believed that a content and delighted home life ought to be the standard. They believed that it could be only accomplished by a husband and his wife, indulgent and administering to one another according to the guideline of Maat (Figure1C) (Tyldesley, 2006).
Ancient Egyptian women were able to settle on monetary choices independently, for example when possessing a property. When entering a marriage, women could claim joint property with their husbands. This implies that if the husband was to discard any joint property, then he was lawfully bound to reward his wife with a property of the same worth (Dayan-Herzbrun, 2005).
Inscriptions and sketches portraying women and men going to feasts; hunting and fishing together is an indicator of the equal union of men and women in social life. In addition, tombs enriched with artwork of deceased women dressed extravagantly in the most recent design using aroma, beautifiers, and toiletries. The gifts for life following death were expressions of men’s fondness for their wives.
The French Egyptologist, Nobelcouer, indicated the representation of equity between men and women during the Ancient Egyptian times in resembling Gods. For instance, temples, engravings, divider compositions, and also statues displaying powerful and intense female divinities indicates that both genders were regarded as equals and that women were not subservient to men. Prime examples are some prominent female goddesses, including the following: Maat (Figure1C) who had all powers and energy; Isis, the Ancient Egyptian Goddess who is similar to Hathor (Graves-Brown, 2010), the goddess of claiming reverence and recuperating. Most importantly, one papyrus exhibited Isis (Manning, 2012) as in control of certain affairs as much as men. These female divinities were as essential and crucial as male divine creatures for Egyptians during that time. Seemingly, the goddess Bastet, a champion around the vast majority of Egyptian gods, figured out how to enhance women’s well-being, security, and labor. People in Ancient Egypt put Bastet in the same level of respect and admiration as Ancient Egyptian women.
Throughout the ancient history of Egypt, there were more than 100 noteworthy female specialists recorded in every domain of medicine. These women were very educated and highly regarded in their specialization, with pictures showing up on tomb dividers, and hieroglyphics scratched. Among the most imperative female doctors of this time was Peseshet (Figure 1D). As seen in engravings found in a tomb of an Old Kingdom, nearly at 3100 B.C.–2100 B.C., she was known as an “administrator of specialists.” Peseshet was a doctor in her specialization, an administrator, and the executive to a group of female doctors. Another significant female doctor from Ancient Egypt was Merit Ptah (Figure1E); she was the first-ever named doctor and the first woman in the historical backdrop of the pharmaceutical field. In this context, she rehearsed pharmaceutical science almost 7,000 years ago, and was deified by her child on her tomb as “The boss doctor.” Another remarkable Ancient Egyptian woman made her print on the field of obstetrics and gynecology, subsequently, in the second century A.D., a doctor named Cleopatra (not the long-dead previous Queen). Cleopatra wrote widely about pregnancy, labor, and women’s well-being, her writings were consulted and examined for more than 1,000 years afterward (Rossiter, 1982).
Furthermore, records exist about Egyptian female doctors, such as Merit Ptah, 2700 B.C and Zipporah, 1500 B.C. Therefore, Egyptian women of ancient times were privileged, as they were able to seek their dreams, strengthen their family life, study, and achieve progress in their work. This led to Egyptian women being among the most regarded doctors of their time.
Science and Education
Ancient Egyptian women had the right to education. From the age of four, they were trained in instructive establishments, where they were taught science, geometry, and the essentials of hieroglyphic and conversational hieratic. Eventually, they would gain a certificate, the title of ink put holder, and would be authorized for full practice in any of the branches of knowledge they chose. For instance, Egyptian women could attend remedial schools along men or attend a female-only school. One of the greatest examples of the remarkable success of Ancient Egyptian women in science is the one of Tapputi-Belatikallim (Figure 1E), who worked with chemicals utilized for aroma generation as a part of Mesopotamia around 1200 B.C.
Ancient Egyptian Women Compared to Ancient Greek Women
Remarkably, women in Ancient Egypt received a larger numbers of opportunities compared to women in Ancient Greece or Rome. For example, Ancient Egyptian women who were educated could study any domain they chose, thus becoming experts in a chosen field (e.g., copyists, researchers, and doctors). Unlike Greek and Roman women who were generally consigned to positions, such as handmaids or housewives, both Ancient Egyptians’ and Greeks’ frameworks of law and social conventions existed side by side in Egypt and operated independently of one another.
From the New Kingdom forward, and surely by the Ptolemaic Period, such proof relates more to the non-first class (i.e., to women of the middle and lower classes). The Greek dominance of Egypt, which started with the triumph of Alexander the Great in 332 B.C., did not clear away Egyptian social and political foundations. By 600 B.C. and the rise of Greek science, the number of women in authentic reports started to expand from 20- to 50-fold every century. This proportion remained moderately consistent for the following 12 centuries.
During the Ptolemaic Period, the preceding colossal human advancements of Ancient Egypt were represented as remarkable. For example, Merit Ptah, who lived circa 2700 B.C.–2500 B.C. is portrayed on her tomb as “The boss doctor;” however, in ancient Greece, which started to be at some point around the eighth century B.C., advancements were principally recorded as male trials. Nevertheless, when the Roman Empire came to its diminishing days in the fourth century A.D., a woman called Hypatia of Alexandria had risen as an image of learning and science. Hypatia, who lived from 370 to 415 A.D., was a mathematician who rose to be a leader of her city’s Neoplatonist theoretical school. Unfortunately, she endured a horrible death because of a Christian swarm, which dishonestly associated her with political interests (Figure 2C).
Figure 2: Remarkable Egyptian women during the Ptolemaic time. Panel (A) depicts Queen Cleopatra (Cleopatra VII). Panel (B) illustrates Maria of Alexandria, who is also called Maria the Jewess. Panel (C) shows Hypatia of Alexandria and Panel (D) is a photograph of the temple wall of Dendera referring to Cleopatra VII and Ptolemy XV (Caesarion).
For more than 70 centuries, Ancient Egyptian advancements offered those establishing beginnings, with which mankind guaranteed its human legacy for its incredible fairness for middle-class men and women without any sexism (Table 1).
Egyptian Women from the Ptolemaic to the Coptic Period
The Ptolemaic Period
Cleopatra VII gave more careful consideration than her ancestors to the local Egyptian population (Figures 2A,D). Although, she was descended from a family of state decision makers, The Ptolemies, who were not Egyptians by blood, but rather Greek/Macedonian (The rulers succeeding Alexander the Great). She was the main Ptolemaic ruler who learned the Egyptian language and adopted all the religious customs to become a genuine Pharaoh. This helped her prominence within individuals outside the Greek rule either in Alexandria (the capital city of Egypt by this time) or in Upper Egypt; where she was worshiped as a divine being (Jacobs, 1996).
Cleopatra supported researchers and exploration at the colossal library of Alexandria, including well-known researchers and mathematicians. Therefore, she appears to have participated with them to the point that the considerable mathematician Photinus called one of his works “Cleopatra’s Canon.” For example, Cleopatra was a gifted linguist and could speak many foreign languages. It was these skills that influenced Julius Caesar’s decision to change the unbalanced counter-intuitive logbook that was used in Rome. This led to the development of the date-book, known as the “Julian timetable” (Feeney, 2007).
The Coptic Period
In the first or second century, Maria of Alexandria (Figure 2B), also known as Maria the Jew, was the first female chemist to concoct the water shower, the three-outfitted still, and other synthetic gear (Reshafim, 2000; Galpaz-Feller, 2004).
The last renowned researcher of the ancient Coptic times was Hypatia (Figure 2C), who was born around 360 A.D. in Alexandria, Egypt. She was viewed as the first female mathematician and studied at the University of Alexandria in arithmetic and stargazing. Alongside her father, they developed “Arithmetica,” “Almagest,” and “Components.” Additionally, she was believed to have composed “The Astronomical Canon” in which she created the plane astrolabe, used to measure the positions of stars and planets. Other notable developments include a mechanical assembly for refining water and the hydrometer for measuring the thickness of fluids. She also contributed to theoretical works, book-keeping, and stargazing, and was accredited with the diagramming of the divine (Table 2).
However, Egyptian women recently became bound by meeting customarily male criteria for exporting achievement, particularly in science, while being relied upon to fit generally female approaches of individual conduct. The outcome is that numerous young Egyptian women decide to keep a strategic distance from this conflict by evading exploratory professions. Therefore, it is simply not only young Egyptian women who need to change, but more importantly, a watchful evaluation is a necessary requirement for instructing techniques, contracting, and advancing women (Fletcher, 2011).
- Bandura A. (1977). Social Learning Theory. New York, NY: General Learning Press.
- Bureau of Labor Statistics (2015). Bureau of Labor Statistics Data: Unemployment Rates. Available at: http://data.bls.gov
- Burr S. (2001). Television and societal effects: an analysis of media images of african- americans in historical context. J. Gend. Race Justice 4 171–181.
- Bussey K., Bandura A. (1984). Influence of gender constancy and social power on sex-linked modeling. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 47 1292–1302. 10.1037/0022-35220.127.116.112
- Cahill S. E. (1986). Language practices and self-definition: the case of gender identity acquisition. Sociol. Q. 27 295–311. 10.1111/j.1533-8525.1986.tb00262.x
- Chassiakos R., Radesky J., Christakis D., Moreno M. A., Cross C. (2016). Children and adolescents and digital media. Pediatrics 138:e20162593 10.1542/peds.2016-2593
- Collins R. L. R., Lamb S., Roberts T.-A., Tolman D. L., Ward L. M., Blake J., et al. (2007). Report of the APA Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls APA Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 1–72.
- Cooney K. (2014). The Woman Who Would Be King: Hatshepsut’s Rise to Power in Ancient Egypt. Westminster, MD: Books on Tape.
- Council on Communications and Media (2016). Media use in school-aged children and adolescents. Pediatrics 138:e20162592 10.1542/peds.2016-2592
- Dayan-Herzbrun S. (2005). Femme et Politique au Moyen-Orient. Paris: L’Harmattan.
- Feeney D. C. (2007). Caesar’s Calendar: Ancient Time and the Beginnings of History. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
- Fletcher J. (2011). Cleopatra the Great: The Woman Behind the Legend. London: Hachette UK.
- Francis B. (2000). Is gender a social construct or a biological imperative? Paper Presented at the Research and Policy 7th Australian Institute of Family Studies Conference Family Futures: Issues in Research and Policy, Sydney.
- Galpaz-Feller P. (2004). Private lives and public censure: adultery in Ancient Egypt and Biblical Israel. Near Eastern Archaeol. 67 152–161. 10.2307/4132377
- Graves-Brown C. (2010). Dancing for Hathor: Women in Ancient Egypt. London: Continuum.
- Hacking I. (1999). The Social Construction of What? History. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
- Huesmann L. R., Miller L. S. (1994). “Long-term effects of repeated exposure to media violence in childhood,” in Aggressive Behavior: Current Perspectives, ed. Huesmann L. R., editor. (New York, NY: Plenum; ), 153–186.
- Hunt N. B. (2009). Living in Ancient Egypt. New York, NY: Thalamus Publishing.
- Jacobs J. A. (1996). Gender inequality and higher education. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 22 153–185. 10.1146/annurev.soc.22.1.153
- Jeyawordena K. (1986). Feminism and Nationalism in the Third World. London: Zed Books Ltd.
- Karim A. A. (2014). Migrantinnen und Migranten als Vorbilder: Erkenntnisse aus der Medien-, Lern- und Neuropsychologie. In: Stabsstelle für Integration und Gleichstellung der Universitätsstadt Tübingen (Hrsg.): Tübinger Talente. Kirchentellinsfurt: Artur Verlag.
- Karim A. A., Krippl M., Khalil R. Why we need people with migration background as idols for children and youth: insights from media- and learning psychology. Kindheit Entwickl. (in press)
- Lopez V., Corona R., Halfond R. (2013). Effects of gender, media influences, and traditional gender role orientation on disordered eating and appearance concerns among Latino adolescents. J. Adolesc. 36 727–736. 10.1016/j.adolescence.2013.05.005
- MacKay N. J., Covell K. (1997). The impact of women in advertisements on attitudes toward women. Sex Roles 36 573–583. 10.1023/A:1025613923786
- Manning J. G. (2012). The Last Pharaohs: Egypt under the Ptolemies, 305–30 BC. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
- Matthes J., Prieler M., Adam K. (2016). Gender-role portrayals in television advertising across the globe. Sex Roles 75 314–327. 10.1007/s11199-016-0617-y
- Moghadam V. M. (2004). Towards Gender Equality in the Arab/Middle East Region. United Nations Development Programme. Background Paper for HDR 2004 New York: Human Development Report Office.
- Money J., Hampson J. G., Hampson J. (1955). An examination of some basic sexual concepts: the evidence of human Hermaphroditism. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 97 301–319.
- Nardo D. (2004). Living in Ancient Egypt. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press.
- Oppliger P. A. (2007). “Effects of gender stereotyping on socialization,” in Mass Media Effects Research: Advances Through Meta-Analysis, eds Preiss R. W., Gayle B. M., Burrell N., Allen M., Bryant J., editors. (Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum; ), 199–214.
- Piccione P. (2003). The Status of Women in Ancient Egyptian Society. Feminist Theory Website. Available at: http://www.cddc.vt.edu/feminism/egy.html
- Reshafim K. (2000). Egypt: Man and Woman. Available at: http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/people/couples.htm
- Rice M. (1983). The role of television in language acquisition. Dev. Rev. 3 211–224. 10.1016/0273-2297(83)90030-8
- Robins G. (1993). Women in Ancient Egypt. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
- Rossiter M. W. (1982). Women Scientists in America: Struggles and Strategies to 1940. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
- Schmitt K. L., Anderson D. R. (2002). Television and reality: toddlers’ use of visual information from television to guide behavior. Media Psychol. 4 51–76. 10.1207/S1532785XMEP0401_03
- Signorielli N. (1990). Children, television, and gender roles. Messages and impact. J. Adolesc. Health Care 11 50–58. 10.1016/0197-0070(90)90129-P
- Tyldesley J. (1994). Marriage and Motherhood in Ancient Egypt, Vol. 44 London: History Today.
- Tyldesley J. (1995). Daughters of Isis: Women of Ancient Egypt. London: Penguin Books.
- Tyldesley J. (2006). Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. London: Thames & Hudson, 98.
- UNICEF (2011). MENA Gender Equality Profile: Status of Girls and Women in the Middle East and North Africa. Available at: https://www.unicef.org/gender/files/Egypt-Gender-Eqaulity-Profile-2011.pdf
- Zosuls K., Miller C., Ruble D., Martin C., Fabes R. (2011). Gender development research in sex roles: historical trends and future directions. Sex Roles 64 826–842. 10.1007/s11199-010-9902-3
Originally published by Frontiers in Psychology 7 (2016), republished by the U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, under the terms of a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license.