Festivals in Ancient Egypt

The Seven Hathors, Temple of Hathor at Dendera / Creative Commons Ancient Egyptians set a premium on celebrations enjoying life, and there were many of them throughout the year. By Dr. Joshua J. Mark / 03.17.2017 Professor of Philosophy Marist College Introduction The gods of the ancient Egyptians were always apparent to the people through[…]

Justice in Pharaonic Egypt

Detail of sarcophagus lid of Ramesses III / The Fitzwilliam Museum, University of Cambridge Justice  was an immensely important concept within ancient pharaonic Egypt, known to them by the word Ma’at. By A.J. van Loon / 12.15.2014 MA Thesis, Ancient History Leiden University Introduction Concerning Egypt, I am going to speak at length, because it[…]

Jobs in Ancient Egypt

Workers depicted in a mural at the tomb of Menna at Thebes, 18th Dynasty / Photo by Horus3, Flickr, Creative Commons Egypt operated on a barter system up until the Persian invasion of 525 BCE, and the economy was based on agriculture. By Dr. Joshua J. Mark / 05.04.2017 Professor of Philosophy Marist College Introduction[…]

Ancient Egypt: The King’s Chief Librarian and Guardian of the Royal Archives of Mehit

The Great Sphinx of Giza / Photo by MusikAnimal, Wikimedia Commons An exclusive title held only by the highest officials of the royal Egyptian court going back to at least early dynastic times.     By (left-to-right) Dr. Manu Seyfzadeh, Dr. Robert M. Schoch, and Robert Bauval / 07.21.2017 Seyfzadeh: Independent Researcher Schoch: Associate Professor[…]

Cleopatra’s Use of Strategic Communication

Cleopatra, being an account of the fall and vengeance of Harmachis, the royal Egyptian, as set forth by his own hand / Wikimedia Commons A glimpse into ancient communication activities and how communication was used by the world’s last pharaoh. By Dr. Shannon A. Bowen / 03.18.2016 Associate Professor of Communications University of South Carolina[…]

Multilingualism Along the Nile in Ancient Egypt

This bilingual papyrus containing magical spells and recipes dates from the early third century A.D. and is written in both Greek and Demotic. In some passages, the Greek text is also transliterated into Demotic, and vice versa. London Magical Papyrus, A.D. 200–225, Romano-Egyptian. Papyrus and ink, 9 7/16 × 33 5/8 in. The British Museum,[…]

Urban Life in Ancient Egypt

Map of Egypt showing the major sites and settlements Looking at the choices the ancient Egyptians made in the allocation of resources to different parts of the built environment. By Dr. Steven Snape Reader in Egyptian Archaeology University of Liverpool Introduction It is easy to think of ancient Egypt as a land filled with tombs and[…]

The Origins of Urbanism in Ancient Egypt

Mythical figurines from Nagada The rise of the city as an important institution can perhaps more confidently be identified as an aspect of ancient Egyptian civilization. By Dr. Steven Snape Reader in Egyptian Archaeology University of Liverpool Introduction Like the term ‘city’, ‘urbanism’ and ‘urbanization’ are not words that are easy to define in very strict terms.[…]

The Practice of Tattooing in Ancient Egypt and Nubia

Tattoos on Egyptian mummy / Public Domain Tattooing was practised by many ancient societies, including the ancient Egyptians and Nubians. By Dr. Geoffrey Tassie Postdoctoral Research Fellow in Archaeology University of Edinburgh Abstract Tattooing was practised by many ancient societies, including the ancient Egyptians and Nubians. Egypt, for example, boasts iconographic and physical evidence for[…]

The Amarna Letters: Diplomacy in the Ancient World

These clay tablets (letters) were found in the ruins of Akhenaten’s capital, Tell el-Amarna, Egypt. They were inscribed with Babylonian cuneiform inscriptions, not hieroglyphs. The letters represent the diplomatic correspondence sent by various vassal princes of the Egyptian Empire to the pharaoh Amenhotep III, Akhenaten, and Tutankhamun. They document a turbulent period when Egypt’s preoccupation with domestic policy led to insurrection and instability throughout[…]

Hammurabi and the Babylonian Empire

Hammurabi (standing), depicted as receiving his royal insignia from Shamash. Hammurabi holds his hands over his mouth as a sign of prayer (relief on the upper part of the stele of Hammurabi’s code of laws). / Photo by MBZT, Louvre Museum, Paris, Wikimedia Commons According to his own inscriptions, letters and administrative documents from his reign, he sought[…]

Ancient Egyptian Law: Seeking Peace with Oneself, One’s Community, and the Gods

Polychrome relief of Kagemni in his own mastaba, Saqqara, Egypt. Kagemni was a vizier of pharaohs Djedkare Isesi and Unas (5th dynasty), and Teti (6th dynasty), 24th century BCE. / Photo by Sémhur, Wikimedia Commons Ancient Egyptian culture flourished through adherence to tradition and their legal system By Dr. Joshua J. Mark / 10.02.2017 Professor of Philosophy Marist College[…]

Pyramids and Sculpture of Old Kingdom Egypt

Edited by Matthew A. McIntosh / 06.25.2018 Historian Brewminate Editor-in-Chief The Pyramids of the Old Kingdom The Old Kingdom of Egypt existed from the third through the sixth Dynasties (2686 BC–2182 BC). A period of political stability and economic prosperity, it is characterized by revolutionary advancements in royal funerary architecture. Both Egyptian society and the[…]

‘Photographing Tutankhamun’ Reveals Historical Context behind Pioneering Images

Iconic photography taken during the decade-long excavation of King Tutankhamun’s tomb has gone on display at Cambridge University’s Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology (MAA). 06.14.2018 The exhibition Photographing Tutankhamun has been curated by University of East Anglia (UEA) Egyptologist Dr Christina Riggs and gives a different view on the ‘golden age’ of archaeology and photography in the[…]

A Cast Fit for an Egyptian King

Video by Kai-Jae Wang/Harvard Staff Guided by Semitic Museum curator, students create ‘Dream Stela’ replica. By Jill Radsken / 06.08.2018 Between the paws of the six-story Great Sphinx in Giza, a slab of hieroglyphs tells the story of how King Thutmose IV dreamed his destiny. The eight-foot Dream Stela was erected in 1401 B.C., 1,000[…]

Ramesses and Nefertiti: The Abu Simbel Temple Complex

Great Temple of Ramesses II (left) and Small Temple of Nefertari (right) / Photo by Holger Weinandt, Wikimedia Commons Abu Simbel is an ancient temple complex, originally cut into a solid rock cliff, in southern Egypt and located at the second cataract of the Nile River. By Dr. Joshua J. Mark / 08.09.2018 Professor of Philosophy Marist College Abu Simbel is an ancient temple complex,[…]

The Art and Architecture of Early Dynastic Egypt, c.3100-2686 BCE

The funerary temple complex of Djoser / Photo by Lansbricae, Wikimedia Commons The hallmarks of ancient Egyptian civilization, such as art, architecture and religion, took shape during the Early Dynastic Period. Edited by Matthew A. McIntosh / 06.03.2018 Historian Brewminate Editor-in-Chief Art in the Early Dynastic Period The Early Dynastic Period of Egypt immediately followed the[…]

Rome’s Flaminian Obelisk: An Epic Journey from Divine Egyptian Symbol to Tourist Attraction

Piazza del Popolo. Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-ND From the Temple of Heliopolis to the centre of Rome, the massive stone column has boosted the egos of several powerful men. By Dr. Nicky Nielsen / 05.03.2018 Lecturer in Egyptology University of Manchester It’s a great place to sit in the shade and enjoy a gelato. The base of the Flaminian Obelisk[…]

From Stonehenge to Nefertiti: How High-Tech Archaeology is Transforming Our View of History

EPA It takes more than a quick scan for high-tech archaeology to reveal history’s secrets. By Dr. Kristian Strutt / 03.23.2016 Experimental Officer and Geophysical Researcher University of Southampton A recent discovery could radically change our views of one of the world’s most famous archaeological sites, Tutankhamun’s tomb. Scans of the complex in Egypt’s Valley of the Kings revealed[…]

The U.S. and Egypt in the 1950s

Presidents Eisenhower and Nasser meeting in New York, 1960 / Public Domain By Dr. John Buescher Historian Introduction The goals of U.S. foreign policy toward Egypt during the 1950s were to protect American and western European access to oil in the Middle East, to end British colonial rule throughout the area in line with the[…]

Tutankhamun’s Dagger Made from a Meteorite

Fallen star sword. Daniella Comelli/University of Pisa Research has confirmed a knife found in the ancient Egyptian pharaoh’s tomb was made with metal from the heavens. By Dr. Diane Johnson / 06.03.2016 Post-Doctoral Research Associate Department of Physical Sciences The Open University Scientists have long speculated that the ancient Egyptians used metal from meteorites to make iron objects. Now an analysis of[…]

Was Cairo’s Grand Opera House a Tool of Cultural Imperialism?

Verdi’s Aida premiered at the Khedivial Opera House, Cairo, to celebrate the opening of the Suez Canal. / Wikimedia Commons By Dr. Adam Mestyan / 04.25.2018 Assistant Professor of History Duke University The new Royal Opera House Muscat in Oman and the brand new Louvre Museum in Abu Dhabi revive vital questions. Are these new institutions instruments[…]

Ancients, Medievals, and Motion in the Heavens

Celestial map from 1670, by the Dutch cartographer Frederik de Wit / Wikimedia Commons By Dr. Michael Fowler / 07.23.2015 Maxine S. and Jesse W. Beams Professor of Physics , Physics Education,Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics University of Virginia Introduction The purpose of this lecture is just to review the various motions observed in the heavens in the simplest,[…]

Alexandria, Egypt: The Legacy of Its Great Founder

By Dr. Joshua J. Mark / 03.07.2018 Professor of Philosophy Marist College Alexandria is a port city located on the Mediterranean Sea in northern Egypt founded in 331 BCE by Alexander the Great. It is most famous in antiquity as the site of the Pharos, the great lighthouse, considered one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, for the Temple of Serapis, the Serapion,[…]