Arts of Luxury for the Renaissance Elite

A Tournament Contest from Tournament Book, about 1560–70, unknown illuminator, made in Germany. The J. Paul Getty Museum, Ms. Ludwig XV 14, fols. 27v–28 Manuscripts, stained glass, garments, tapestries, and other precious objects provide a window into the spectacles and social rules that governed life in European courts. By Dr. Larisa Grollemond / 08.27.2018 Assistant[…]

Marianne and the Motto of the French Republic

Marianne is the embodiment of the French Republic. Marianne represents the permanent values that found her citizens’ attachment to the Republic: “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity”. Employed alternately by opponents of the republican system and by its defenders, the name Marianne (Marie-Anne), popular with the working classes, is the symbol of a Republic constructed by the gradual[…]

Lucius Cornelius Sulla: Guardian or Enemy of the Roman Republic?

The Entrance of Cornelius Sulla into Rome, where he was appointed as “Dictator” in the First Century BCE /  Wikimedia Commons The truth is complex. By Marc Hyden / 07.27.2015 Historian Introduction For centuries, Lucius Cornelius Sulla has been reviled as a maniacal tyrant who defiled the Roman constitution and instituted bloody purges, but some[…]