Centuries of Inaccurate Christian Depictions of the Historical Jesus

Mosaic of the vault of the chapel of San Zeno (IX century) / Photo by Livioandronico2013, Wikimedia Commons The Jesus we’ve inherited from centuries of Christian art is not accurate. By Dr. Joan Taylor / 02.08.2018 Professor of Christian Origins and Second Temple Judaism King’s College London Over the past few decades, the question of[…]

Adolf Hitler and ‘Nationalism’

Adolf Hitler and his entourage take a stroll in Paris on June 23, 1940 / German Federal Archives, Wikimedia Commons Examining Adolf Hitler’s conceptualization of Nationalism – the Nation and who, in Hitler’s thinking, comprises it. By John Cai Benjamin Weaver / 05.16.2011 Doctoral Candidate, Department of Political and Economic Studies University of Helsinki Adolf[…]

Ritual Killing in Ancient Rome: Homicide and Roman Superiority

Decimation (William Hogarth) in Beaver’s Roman Military Punishments / Metropolitan Museum of Art, Wikimedia Commons The ancient Romans interpreted the favor of the gods as justification to perform ritual killings. By Dawn F. Carver, Jasmine Watson, and Jason Curtiss, Jr. Colorado State University-Pueblo The ancient Romans outlawed human sacrifice in 97 BCE after increasing discomfort with the[…]

The Holy Roman Empire: Formation, Rule, Decline, and Successive German Nations

A portrait of Charlemagne wearing the crown of the Holy Roman Empire (fifteenth century painting by Albrecht Dürer) / Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Wikimedia Commons Known as the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation from the late fifteenth century onwards, this was a mainly Germanic conglomeration of lands in Central Europe during the Middle Ages and the early modern period. Edited by Matthew A.[…]

The Polish Nobility’s “Golden Freedom”: On the Ancient Roots of a Political Idea

The Republic at the Zenith of Its Power. Golden Liberty. The Royal Election of 1573, by Jan Matejko / Royal Castle, Wikimedia Commons This essay traces the Greek and Roman roots of Polish sixteenth- to eighteenth-century political thought by discussing the Polish nobility’s concept of the “Golden Freedom” (L. aurea libertas). By focusing on the Roman and the Greek[…]