A History of ‘Secret Societies’

The expression “secret societies” evokes a Wittgensteinian family resemblance of a great variety of organisations with all sorts of similarities. By Dr. Jaap Kloosterman / 06.19.2013International Institute of Social History Introduction Attempts to circumscribe our topic are naturally hampered by the fact that secrecy is a many-sided thing. The expression “secret societies” evokes a Wittgensteinian[…]

A History of the Medieval Knights Templar

The order was formed c.1119 CE when seven knights, led by French nobleman Hugh of Payns, swore to defend Christian pilgrims in Jerusalem and the Holy Land. By Mark CartwrightHistorian Introduction The Knights Templar, established c. 1119 CE and given papal recognition in 1129 CE, was a Catholic medieval military order whose members combined martial prowess[…]

The English Peasants’ Revolt (1381)

A new realization of the value of their labor and an unwillingness to be exploited lay behind the revolt. Introduction The Peasants’ Revolt,Tyler’s Rebellion, or the Great Rising of 1381, was one of a number of popular revolts in late medieval Europe and is a major event in the history of England. The names of some of its leaders,[…]

The Manorial System in Medieval Europe

The idea of people of different social levels living together on a single estate for mutual benefit goes back to Roman times. By Mark CartwrightHistorian Introduction Manorialism, also known as the Manorial System, may be defined as the system in Medieval Europe where rural society was arranged around a manor house or castle on an estate.[…]

A Medical-Historical Examination of the Death of Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great’s cause of death has been contentious since antiquity.    By Nathan Gamble (left) and Dr. Edmund F. Bloedow (right)Gamble: Researcher in Bioethics and Law, University of TorontoBloedow: Professor of Classics, Augustine College Abstract Alexander the Great’s cause of death has been contentious since antiquity. Historians and physicians alike have proposed a multitude[…]

Accounts of PTSD in Warfare from Homer to the Middle Ages

PTSD is a relatively modern term, but the symptoms are as old as civilization itself. In the BBC’s Bodyguard, Richard Madden plays a police protection officer and veteran soldier who is exhibiting signs of PTSD. In episode three he tries to strangle the woman he is supposed to be safeguarding. Later, a friend suggests he seek counselling. This image of the[…]