Porfirio Díaz: Tyranny of the Few in Mexico at the Turn of the 20th Century

The elite few benefited at the cost of the many until his overthrow and exile. Introduction José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz Mori (September 15, 1830 – July 2, 1915) was a Mexican-American War volunteer, French Intervention hero, and President. He ruled Mexico from 1876 to 1880, and from 1884 to 1911. After a distinguished military career, Díaz parted company[…]

A Triumvirate of Tyranny: The Three Pashas and the Armenian Genocide

Until the late ninteenth century, the Armenians were referred to as millet-i sadika (loyal nation) by the Ottomans. Introduction The Armenian Genocide—also known as the Armenian Holocaust, Great Calamity or the Armenian Massacre—refers to the forced mass evacuation and related deaths of hundreds of thousands or over a million Armenians, during the government of the Young Turks from 1915 to[…]

Garden of Perfect Brightness: The Yuanmingyuan as Imperial Paradise, 1700-1860

The Kangxi emperor created a villa with gardens to the northwest of Beijing which was named the Garden of Joyful Spring. In order to create a private retreat near the Forbidden City but away from its formality, the Kangxi emperor created a villa with gardens to the northwest of Beijing which was named the Garden[…]

A History of Korean Architecture

Examining Korean architecture from the Neolithic period to the modern world. Introduction The early stages of Korean architecture date to the Neolithic period; archaeological evidence of ondol, the unique Korean floor panel heating system, was found among the remains of the burnished plain pottery culture. For the first century B.C.E., Korean architecture was influenced by the Chinese. After[…]

The History and Culture of the Kurds

History Kurdish history is deeply intertwined with the geography and the politics of the modern Kurdish regions. Historic Ethnicities of Kurdistan The contiguous Kurdish regions of Iran, Iraq, Turkey, and Syria sit in the north central area of the Middle East. Over the millennia, numerous ethnicities have migrated, settled or natively inhabited the area including Turks, Persians, Arabs, Kurds, Armenians, Assyrians, Chechens, Azeris and others. From the beginning of[…]

The Rock-Cut Tombs of Qizqapan, Iraqi Kurdistan of the Median-Achaemenid Periods, 600-330 BCE

The story of a cave, a man, and a girl he abducted for marriage. By Dr. Osama Shukir Muhammed AminAssociate Professor of NeurologyShorsh Military General Teaching Hospital O Creator of the material world, at what distance from the holy man (should the place for the dead body be)?” Ahura Mazda replied: “Three paces from the[…]