El Ñáñigo: A Spirit Dancer Of Afro-Cuba

Attention to detail has led some scholars and historians to read the image for its value as an ethnographic document. By Dr. Linda RodriguezProfessor of AnthropologyNew York University Victor Patricio de Landaluze’s costumed dancer, known as El Ñáñigo, stands silent and still. The viewer almost expects a sudden breeze to ruffle the branches that hang[…]

A History of Animism and Its Contemporary Examples

While the term “animism” refers to a broad range of spiritual beliefs (many of which are still extant within human cultures today), it does not denote any particular religious creed or doctrine. Introduction Animism (from the Latin: animus or anima, meaning mind or soul) refers to a belief in numerous personalized, supernatural beings endowed with[…]

Yolanda of Flanders: Latin Woman Potentate of the Byzantine Empire

Examining the influence of family, religion, schooling, class, status, experiences, and social contacts upon the psychological development of Yolanda. Abstract The main purpose of this paper is to construct a personality profile of Yolanda, a Latin woman potentate of the Eastern Roman Empire. The key question the author is addressing is whether or not the[…]

Women in the Byzantine Empire

Although they were the minority, some women did manage to rise above the limitations imposed on them by the male-dominated culture. By Mark CartwrightHistorian Introduction Women in the Byzantine Empire (4th to 15th century CE) were, amongst the upper classes, largely expected to supervise the family home and raise children while those who had to[…]

The Diaspora in Ancient Israel and Rise of the Synagogue

The ancient synagogue represents an inclusive, localized form of worship that did not crystallize until the destruction of the Temple in 70 CE. Introduction A unique and fundamental aspect of ancient Judean society in both Israel and the Diaspora, the ancient synagogue represents an inclusive, localized form of worship that did not crystallize until the destruction[…]