The Victorian Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, 1888-1901

The history of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn (1888-1901), the most influential hermetic society of the nineteenth century. Introduction This article presents the history of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn (1888-1901), the most influential hermetic society of the nineteenth century. Its members practiced and trained initiates in using natural magic to[…]

How ‘The Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám’ Inspired Victorian Hedonists

There began a cult of Khayyám that lasted at least until the First World War. By Roman KrznaricPublic Philosopher How did a 400-line poem based on the writings of a Persian sage and advocating seize-the-day hedonism achieve widespread popularity in Victorian England? The Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám was written by the eccentric English scholar Edward FitzGerald, drawing[…]

Some Like It Hot: Sex and the Sauna in Early Modern Sweden

In early modern Sweden bathing was a part of everyday life. There were public and private hot-steam baths, or saunas. Modern iterations of the sauna – and especially the gay sauna – have been highlighted as spaces where societal norms might be transcended and at the same time moral anxiety heightened. What is less recognized today is that the[…]

Sexual Curiosities? Aphrodisiacs in Early Modern England

The word aphrodisiac only began to be used to describe such foods in the late seventeenth century. The word aphrodisiac conjures images of oysters and chocolate, or perhaps peppers to ‘spice things up’. Nearly everyone knows that these foods have a long history of being considered aphrodisiacs. Yet it is worth devoting a little more[…]

The Differences between Ancient and Medieval Byzantine and Armenian Christianity

The types of Christianity they professed had important differences that led to a lack of recognition and tensions between the two groups. Introduction Although both the Byzantines and the Armenians were Christian, the types of Christianity they professed had important differences that led to a lack of recognition and tensions between the two groups and[…]

Pietas Religio: Augustus and Religion

Something very important to note about Augustus and his political, societal and religious views is the significant amount of propaganda in his work. Introduction One way that Augustus showed Pietas religio, is through the building program. This is done in a fashion that ended up paying off brilliantly for Augustus, securing his name in the history[…]