Where Be Monsters? The Daedalus Sea Serpent and the War for Credibility

Just what was it that the crew of the HMS Daedalus saw? By Matthew Willis On 6 August 1848, Midshipman Sartoris of the Royal Navy corvette HMS Daedalus alerted the officers on the ship’s quarterdeck to an unusual sight. The captain, first lieutenant, and sailing master were all present to see the approach of a large creature[…]

The Byzantine Empire – A History of Eastern Rome

The name Byzantine Empire is a modern term and would have been alien to its contemporaries, who would have known it as Ῥωμανία Romanía (Imperium Romanorum). Introduction The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. Much of this territory had first fallen to Greek rule[…]

Rome’s Imperial Crisis of the Third Century

The Roman Empire splintered into three separate political entities: the Gallic Empire, the Roman Empire, and the Palmyrene Empire. Introduction The Crisis of the Third Century (also known as the Imperial Crisis, 235-284 CE) was the period in the history of the Roman Empire during which it splintered into three separate political entities: the Gallic Empire, the Roman Empire, and the Palmyrene[…]

How the Ancient Egyptian Economy Laid the Groundwork for Building the Pyramids

In the shadow of the pyramids of Giza lie the tombs of the courtiers and officials who built these vast structures. In the shadow of the pyramids of Giza, lie the tombs of the courtiers and officials of the kings buried in the far greater structures. These men and women were the ones responsible for[…]

Circular Economies and Repurposing in the Ancient World

Recycling on a large scale is a Bronze Age invention. The circular economy is typically seen as the progressive alternative to our wasteful linear economy, where raw materials are used to make the products that feed today’s rampant consumerist hunger, which are then thrown away. The idea of the circular economy only took off in the 1980s,[…]