The Propaganda Posters that Won the U.S. Home Front in World War II

Artists suddenly became soldiers on the front to win the hearts and minds of the American public. Introduction In 1917, James Montgomery Flagg created his iconic Uncle Sam poster encouraging American men to join the war cause with the clear message, “I want you for the U.S. Army!” as the U.S. ramped up preparations to enter[…]

The League of Nations: The ‘Great Experiment’ and the Failure of Collective Security, 1916-1936

President Wilson’s support for a new international system offered the first practical opportunity to create a universal organisation of states pledged to non-violent diplomacy. Abstract In 1918, President Wilson’s support for a new international system offered the first practical opportunity to create a universal organisation of states pledged to non-violent diplomacy. This article explores some[…]

Spanish North American Territories and Borders during the American Revolution

Spanish Presidios and Mexican Leather-Jackets in 1772. Spaniards responded to the unfolding story of the American Revolution with a mixture of trepidation and schadenfreude. Britain was Spain’s dangerous imperial rival. Britain had humiliated France and Spain in the French and Indian War. So Spaniards much enjoyed England’s crisis. But in 1775, the Count of Aranda,[…]

European Immigration to America and Colonization

Eventually, the entire Western Hemisphere would come under the domination of European nations, leading to profound changes to its landscape, indigenous population, and plant and animal life. Introduction The start of the European Colonization of the Americas is typically dated to 1492, although there was at least one earlier colonization effort. The first known Europeans[…]

The Southern Hemisphere, Australia, and Cartographers in the 16th Century

In the 16th century, most maps were published in Latin and cartographers were just starting to record European discoveries such as America. Matthew Flinders, who died just over 200 years ago, is widely credited with giving this country its name: Australia. Flinders preferred Australia to the more commonly used Terra Australis as he thought it[…]

Mapping the Oceans in the Age of Discovery

Johannes Gutenberg printed his first Bible in 1455, and the first published sailing directions appeared thirty-five years later. Print media encouraged the divergence of navigational information from material discussing the commercial prospects of trade at various ports. Printing promoted the widespread distribution of geographic and hydrographic information, including maps, to readers throughout Europe at a[…]