Why Don’t More Americans Remember the 1897 Massacre of Pennsylvania Coal Miners?

The mostly Eastern European victims were forgotten because of an ensuing backlash against immigrant workers. At the western entrance of the coal patch town of Lattimer, in Luzerne County, Pennsylvania, sits a rough-cut shale boulder, about 8 feet tall, surrounded by neatly trimmed bushes. A bronze pickax and a shovel are attached to the boulder,[…]

A History of Immigration to Boston: Eras, Ethnic Groups, and Places

Examining different time periods and ethnic groups to document the history of a city where immigrants have long been a vital force in shaping economic, social and political life. Eras of Immigration First Wave Immigration, 1820-1880 During the nineteenth century, Boston evolved from a bustling port town to a booming industrial city. Through landfill and[…]

The American Revolution Story Has a Hole the Size of Spain

While the Marquis de Lafayette gets a share of the glory, names like Gardoqui and Gálvez are all but forgotten. Americans like to think of our nation as exceptional in nature, a dramatic break from all that came before it. Being exceptional, it’s inconvenient to acknowledge that two European powers provided invaluable assistance in our[…]

How the Lowly Mosquito Helped America Win Independence

The blood-sucking insect has played a leading role in the rise and fall of empires throughout history. In recent months, millions of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes have been at work spreading the Zika virus in South and Central America. This summer, millions more, all capable of conveying the virus, will flit and bite throughout the southern U.S. Congress[…]

Catherine the Great: Behind the Gossip, a Commanding Ruler

Shrouded by myth and intrigue, Catherine the Great is now regarded as one of history’s most influential female rulers. Loved by many, loathed by others and the subject of gossip to most, Catherine the Great is one of history’s most influential female rulers. By day this enlightened despot plotted military conquests. By night she hosted[…]

The Battle of Gaugamela, 331 BCE

Alexander the Great pushed east into Mesopotamia with the intention of bringing Darius to battle. Introduction After securing the eastern Mediterranean seaboard and Egypt, Alexander the Great pushed east into Mesopotamia with the intention of bringing Darius to battle. After crossing the Euphrates River unopposed, he marched his army eastward along the foothills of the[…]