The Sicilian Mafia during the Mussolini Regime

In June 1924, Mussolini instructed Cesare Mori to eradicate the Mafia from Sicily. The Sicilian Mafia was less active during the era of Fascist Italy and it was fought by Benito Mussolini’s government. In June 1924, Mussolini instructed Cesare Mori to eradicate the Mafia from Sicily and on October 25, 1925, appointed Mori prefect of the Sicilian capital, Palermo. In 1924, Mussolini initiated a campaign to destroy[…]

Benito Mussolini’s Rise to Power in Fascist Italy

The ideological basis for fascism came from a number of sources. Formation of the National Fascist Party By the time he returned from service in the Allied forces of World War I, very little remained of Mussolini the socialist. Indeed, he was now convinced that socialism as a doctrine had largely been a failure. In 1917 Mussolini[…]

American Culture’s Unlikely Debt to a British Scientist

A fortuitous influx of cash launched the Smithsonian’s first art collection. In 1835, through an unlikely turn of events, the young United States became the beneficiary of the estate of one James Smithson, a British scientist of considerable means who had never set foot on American soil. The gift of $500,000 (about $12 million today)[…]

“I Cannot Live Without Books”: Thomas Jefferson’s Library

Throughout his life, Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826) collected books across a vast spectrum of topics and languages. Introduction Throughout his life, books were vital to Thomas Jefferson’s education and well being. His books provided Jefferson with a broader knowledge of the contemporary and ancient worlds than many of his contemporaries had obtained through personal experience. Jefferson’s[…]