The Civil War’s Unforgiving Final Year and How It Changed the War’s Legacy

What happened in the first few years seems almost innocent compared to what happened in the last year. A few years ago, I wrote a biography of Stonewall Jackson called Rebel Yell, which, in addition to tracking his life, chronicled the first two years of the American Civil War. Jackson fought in the war’s earliest battles, and[…]

The Spanish Inquisition: Historical Context for Don Quixote

As vast as the Spanish empire was during Cervantes time, the empire found itself engaged in numerous conflicts. By Alison KruegerDepartment of Spanish and PortugueseColumbia University The Rise of Spain from the End of the Reconquest In 711, Muslims from North Africa invaded much of the Spanish Peninsula.  Shortly after, and for the next several[…]

Lex Naturalis: A History of ‘Natural Law’ Philosophy

Natural law theory attempts to define a “higher law” on the foundation of a universal understanding of “good” and “evil”. Introduction Natural law or the law of nature (Latin lex naturalis) is law whose content derives naturally from human nature or physical nature, and therefore has universal validity. In natural law jurisprudence, the content of[…]

2,000-Year-Old Street Built in Jerusalem by Pontius Pilate Discovered

The excavation revealed over 100 coins trapped beneath paving stones. An ancient walkway most likely used by pilgrims as they made their way to worship at the Temple Mount has been uncovered in the “City of David” in the Jerusalem Walls National Park. In a new study published in Tel Aviv: Journal of the Institute[…]

Galatia: Gauls in Ancient Anatolia (Modern Turkey)

The Galatian Celts retained their culture at first, continuing to observe their ancient religious festivals and rituals. Introduction Galatia was a region in north-central Anatolia (modern-day Turkey) settled by the Celtic Gauls c. 278-277 BCE. The name comes from the Greek for “Gaul” which was repeated by Latin writers as Galli. The Celts were offered[…]