Measles in Antiquity and the Middle Ages

The measles virus probably descended from the ancestors of the modern canine distemper and/or rinderpest viruses. By Dr. Louise CillersResearch FellowGreek, Latin, and Classical StudiesUniversity of the Free State Introduction Although no longer a formidable epidemic disease, measles is still responsible for up to 2 million deaths per annum – mainly among children in developing[…]

The Plague in Ancient Athens

The city-state of Sparta, and much of the eastern Mediterranean, was also struck by the disease. Introduction The Plague of Athens was a devastating epidemic that ravaged the city-state of Athens in ancient Greece in 430 B.C.E., during the second year of the Peloponnesian War (431-404 B.C.E.), when an Athenian victory still seemed within reach.[…]

Alexander the Great and the Burning of Persepolis

He looted the city and burned it to the ground. Introduction In the year 330 BCE Alexander the Great (l. 356-323 BCE) conquered the  Achaemenid Persian Empire following his victory over the Persian Emperor Darius III (r. 336-330 BCE) at the Battle of Gaugamela in 331 BCE. After Darius III’s defeat, Alexander marched to the Persian[…]

Persepolis, Capital of the Ancient Persian Achaemenid Empire

It was the capital from the reign of Darius I (the Great, r. 522-486 BCE) until its destruction in 330 BCE by Alexander the Great. Introduction Persepolis was the capital of the Persian Achaemenid Empire from the reign of Darius I (the Great, r. 522-486 BCE) until its destruction in 330 BCE. Its name comes[…]

The Oligarchic Coup in Athens, 411 BCE

The movement toward oligarchy was led by a number of prominent and wealthy Athenians. Introduction The Athenian coup of 411 BC was the result of a revolution that took place during the Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta. The coup overthrew the democratic government of ancient Athens and replaced it with a short-lived oligarchy known[…]

Demos and Kratos: People and Power in Ancient Athens

Athenian democracy was indeed a direct democracy, but not for everybody. By Georgios Mavropalias A sequence of events allowed the birth of democracy in ancient Athens; the reforms of Solon which weakened the aristocracy and redefined citizenship, their reinstatement by Cleisthenes after the oligarchy reemerged, and the shrinkage of the power of Areopagus by Ephialtes,[…]

How Does Smoking/Vaping Affect Your Sports Performance?

VAPING AND SMOKING AS HOBBIES NOWADAYS: ALL THE WHYs? Vaping and smoking are becoming more and more popular today. People, living in the 21st century cannot spend time drinking and being on the booze for days, they use the more convenient drug for relaxation – nicotine. They can take it and still function in society.[…]