Witch-Hunts, Theocracies, and Hypocrisy: McCarthyism in ‘The Crucible’ and ‘Susannah’

For the source of his story, Arthur Miller looked back to the Salem witch trials of 1692. In the early 1950s, at the height of the Cold War, the United States was in the throes of the paranoid, hysterical, communist witch-hunt we have come to call McCarthyism, named for the particularly zealous senator, Joseph McCarthy,[…]

Classical Education in the Eighteenth Century: Toward Reason and Rationality

The Enlightenment of the late 17th and the 18th century called for the re-examination of classical concepts. By Megan Pettingill and Lillianah Shabo Introduction An immense interest in classical education emerged during the eighteenth century, demonstrating that a classical education was still revered in educational circles as the apex of intellectual training. Its notions have[…]

A History of Africa’s Kingdom of Kongo from the 14th Century

The kingdom of Kongo, with a population of well over 2 million people at its peak, prospered due to trade. By Mark CartwrightHistorian Introduction The Kingdom of Kongo (14-19th century CE) was located on the western coast of central Africa in modern-day DR of Congo and Angola. Prospering on the regional trade of copper, ivory,[…]

Mansa Musa: Ruler of the Medieval African Mali Empire

The Mali Empire was the largest and richest empire yet seen in West Africa to that time. By Mark CartwrightHistorian Introduction Mansa Musa I was the ruler of the Mali Empire in West Africa from 1312 to 1337 CE. Controlling territories rich in gold and copper, as well as monopolising trade between the north and[…]

An Epilepsy ‘Demon’ on a 2,700-Year-Old Tablet

A 2,700-year-old cuneiform tablet from ancient Iraq depicts the demon that the ancient Assyrians thought caused epilepsy. It’s a previously overlooked element of the tablet describing medical treatments. The demon is visible at the bottom of the image—horns and face to the left and legs to the right. When Assyriologist Troels Pank Arbøll of the[…]

Prometheus and Tityus: Hepatic (Liver) Regeneration in Ancient Greek Mythology

Hepatic regeneration was well known to ancient Greeks, and this natural ability was established in the tales of Prometheus and the Giant Tityus. Abstract The accurate knowledge of surgical anatomy, the amelioration of post-operative processes and the continuously increasing experience of surgeons nowadays allow the performance of severe hepatic operations (e.g., wide liver resections, liver[…]