Fascismo: Italian Fascism under Benito Mussolini, 1922-1943

Fascism in Italy was strongly identified with the cult of Mussolini and with the idea, even with the idolization, of the “state.” Introduction Italian Fascism (in Italian, fascismo) was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. German Nazism, under Adolf Hitler, was inspired by Italian[…]

A History and Description of Fascism

Fascists promote a type of national unity that is usually based on (but not limited to) ethnic, cultural, national, racial, and/or religious attributes. Introduction Fascism is a term used to describe authoritarian nationalist political ideologies or mass movements that are concerned with notions of cultural decline or decadence and seek to achieve a millenarian national[…]

A History of the Industrial Revolution

The effects spread throughout Western Europe and North America during the nineteenth century. Introduction The Industrial Revolution was a major shift of technological, socioeconomic, and cultural conditions that occurred in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century in some Western countries. It began in Britain and spread throughout the world, a process that continues as[…]

History and Theories of Social Class

The notion of social class is still questioned as it becomes even more difficult to define in an increasingly fluid and globalized society. Introduction Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. Anthropologists, historians, and sociologists identify class as universal, although what determines class will vary widely from[…]

A History of the Italian Renaissance

The Italian Renaissance began in Tuscany, centered in the cities of Florence and Siena. Introduction The Italian Renaissance began the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement in Europe that spanned the period from the end of the fourteenth century to about 1600, marking the transition between Medieval and[…]

An Overview of Classical Antiquity

The foundations of the modern world derive from the Classic Age as it was reformulated during the Renaissance followed by the Enlightenment. Introduction Classical antiquity, era, or period is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (eighth-seventh[…]