The Pennsylvania Line Mutiny of 1781: Soldiers in Revolt over Contracts

The soldiers’ grievances were founded upon a violation of the literal enlistment contracts. Introduction On the evening of January 1st, 1781, the Continental troops of the Pennsylvania Line mutinied at Morristown, New Jersey. Their revolt exhibited trends of the larger War of Independence. The soldiers’ grievances were founded upon a violation of the literal enlistment[…]

Benedict Arnold: Revolutionary Hero Turned Traitor

Today, Benedict Arnold’s name is synonymous with treason, betrayal, and defection. Introduction Benedict Arnold (January 14, 1741 – June 14, 1801) was a famous American traitor, having been a general in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. He is best known for plotting to surrender the American fort at West Point, New York,[…]

Edward Bancroft, Double Agent: Spying for Both Sides during the Revolutionary War

Bancroft’s activity as a double agent was not revealed until 1891, when British diplomatic papers were released to the public. Introduction Edward Bartholomew Bancroft (January 20, 1745 [O.S. January 9, 1744][1] – September 7, 1821) was a Massachusetts-born physician and chemist who became a double agent, spying for both the United States and Great Britain[…]

Jehoash: King of Ancient Judah and a Modern Archaeological Forgery

Jehoash strictly enforced the exclusive worship of the Hebrew God, Yahweh, and was on shaky ground politically. Introduction Jehoash, sometimes written Joash or Joas, was the king of the ancient Kingdom of Judah, the sole surviving son of Ahaziah. William F. Albright dates his reign to 837-800 B.C.E., while E. R. Thiele puts it at[…]

Searching for Israelite Origins in Religious and Secular Sources

Most Jews today are the descendants of the Israelites, as are the Samaritans, only a few of who still survive. Introduction The Israelites, as described in the Hebrew Bible, were the descendants of the patriarch Jacob, later known as Israel. Jacob’s 12 sons formed the 12 tribes of Israel after emigrating to Egypt. Under the[…]