Henry McCarty: The Rise and Fall of Outlaw Billy the Kid

He made no pretense to be engaged in a social or a moral crusade. Introduction Henry McCarty (November 23, 1859[1] – July 14, 1881) was better known as Billy the Kid, but also known by the aliases Henry Antrim and William Harrison Bonney. He was a nineteenth century American frontier outlaw and gunman who was[…]

Galileo Galilei: A Scientific Break from Aristotle

The Catholic Church didn’t finally officially recognize their own error until John Paul II in 1992. Introduction Galileo Galilei (February 15, 1564 – January 8, 1642) was an Italian physicist, astronomer, and philosopher, whose career coincided with that of Johannes Kepler. His work constitutes a significant break from that of Aristotle and medieval philosophers and[…]

‘De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium’: The Medieval Copernican Revolution

His work marked the starting point of modern astronomy and cosmology. Introduction Nicolaus Copernicus (February 19, 1473 – May 24, 1543) was one of the great polymaths of his age. He was a mathematician, astronomer, jurist, physician, classical scholar, governor, administrator, diplomat, economist, and soldier. Amid his extensive accomplishments, he treated astronomy as an avocation.[…]

Populares: Faction of the People in Ancient Rome

This faction favored the cause of the plebeians (the commoners). Introduction The Populares were a political faction in the late Roman Republic who favoured the cause of the plebeians (the commoners). The Populares emerged as a political group with the reforms of the Gracchi brothers, who were tribunes of the plebs between 133 and 121[…]

Optimates: Conservative Faction in Ancient Rome

The Optimates opposed the extension of Roman citizenship and sought the preservation of the “mos maiorum”, the ways of their forefathers. Introduction The Optimates, also known as boni (“good men”), were a conservative political faction in the late Roman Republic. They formed in reaction against the reforms of the Gracchi brothers—two tribunes of the plebs[…]

The Inclusion of Biographies in Teaching History

Biographies, which are generally accepted as teaching materials in history and social studies education, possess additional characteristics of a means to give value to the learning process. Over the past decade, changes have been adopted in the way history is taught, which have shaken classrooms. Increasingly, educators question the predominantly factual approach used in instruction.[…]

Things of the Past: The Importance of Studying History

We all live in the present while planning and worrying about what the future holds. Historical study, on the other hand, is the scrutiny of past events. Given the many challenges that emerge from living in the current world while awaiting what the future brings, why bother studying what has already occurred? With so many[…]