Mobile Cinema: The British Empire’s Propaganda Tool for ‘Primitive Peoples’

In the dying days of empire, the British financed a global cinema service. Introduction It’s 1945. A mobile cinema van drives into a village in Ghana. Word spreads, music plays and a crowd gathers. The travelling commentator gives local chiefs a tour of the equipment, showing off this latest British technology, and explains the aims[…]

Imperialists Like Us: British Pamphlet Propaganda in the Great War

Empire was a consistent theme in these hundreds of pamphlets. In the Great War, the British government modernised and systematised propaganda for the first time. From the beginning in 1914, it aimed not only at domestic and enemy audiences, but also at the most powerful neutral country: the United States. The Propaganda Bureau, operating secretly[…]

Jonathan Swift: Master of Satire in the 18th Century

Swift was a heavily politically involved and prolific writer. Introduction Jonathan Swift (November 30, 1667 – October 19, 1745) was an Anglo-Irish priest, essayist, political writer, and poet, considered the foremost satirist in the English language. Swift’s fiercely ironic novels and essays, including world classics such as Gulliver’s Travels and The Tale of the Tub,[…]

Factoids, Dishonesty, and Propaganda in the Middle Ages

Three types of historical writing flourished in the Middle Ages: chronicles, hagiography, and the rhetorical monograph. By Dr. Paul Antony HaywardHistorian A natural starting point for any attempt to know a past society is its histories—the texts with which its members recorded what had happened and was happening in their world. Many precious witnesses of[…]

Comfort for the Grieving in the Stoic Philosophy of Marcus Aurelius

While we don’t get to decide when we get shipwrecked, we do get to decide what we rebuild out of the debris. ‘When I was a child, when I was an adolescent, books saved me from despair: that convinced me that culture was the highest of values.’ From The Woman Destroyed (1967) by Simone de[…]

“Stoa Poikile”: Zeno of Citium and the Mindset of a Stoic

Understanding through reason, self-discipline in wisdom and virtue. Introduction Stoicism, one of the three major schools of Hellenistic philosphy, was founded in Athens in 308 B.C.E. by Zeno of Citium (334-262 B.C.E.) and further developed by his two successors, Cleanthes (331-232 B.C.E.) and Chrysippus (c. 280-206 B.C.E.). The school got its name from the “stoa[…]

How Old-Fashioned Candy Can Boost Your Local Business

Local business owners are always looking for ways to improve their visibility and attract new customers—while incentivizing existing customers to keep coming back for more. Whether you own a café, a comic book shop, a hair salon, or something more unique, the little touches throughout your business can make a major impact in its longevity.[…]