History and Theories of Civil Disobedience

Civil disobedience can be distinguished from other active forms of protest, such as rioting, because of its passivity and non-violence. Introduction Civil disobedience encompasses the active refusal to obey certain laws, demands, and commands of a government or of an occupying power without resorting to physical violence. Based on the position that laws can be[…]

The Cruel History of the ‘Reverse Freedom Rides’ and Their Long Aftermath

Lela Mae and the others were unwitting pawns in a segregationist game. Introduction After three days on a Greyhound bus, Lela Mae Williams was just an hour from her destination—Hyannis, Mass.—when she asked the bus driver to pull over. She needed to change into her finest clothes. She had been promised the Kennedy family would[…]

Facing Down Khrushchev: The Cuban Missile Crisis

Russians refer to the event as the “Caribbean Crisis.” Cubans refer to it as the “October Crisis.” Introduction The Cuban Missile Crisis was a confrontation during the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States regarding the Soviet deployment of nuclear missiles in Cuba. The missiles were placed to protect Cuba from attacks[…]

A History of the Soviet Union, 1927-1991

The use of forced labor and the development of labor camps to “re-educate” anyone deemed as “bourgeois” began in 1921. Stalinist Development Planning At the Fifteenth Party Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in December 1927, Josef Stalin attacked the left by expelling Leon Trotsky and his supporters from the party and[…]

Philadelphia Threw a WWI Parade That Gave Thousands of Onlookers the Flu in 1918

The city sought to sell bonds to pay for the war effort, while bringing its citizens together during the infamous pandemic. By Kenneth C. DavisHistorian It was a parade like none Philadelphia had ever seen. In the summer of 1918, as the Great War raged and American doughboys fell on Europe’s killing fields, the City[…]

10 Misconceptions about the 1918 Flu, the ‘Greatest Pandemic in History’

The so-called ‘Spanish flu’ didn’t actually come from Spain. What else do people often misunderstand about this famous crisis? Introduction Pandemic: It’s a scary word. But the world has seen pandemics before, and worse ones, too. Consider the influenza pandemic of 1918, often referred to erroneously as the “Spanish flu.” Misconceptions about it may be[…]