The Impact of the Transcontinental Railroad on Native Americans

The Transcontinental Railroad facilitated the colonization of western territories by encouraging new settlements on Indigenous lands. The Transcontinental Railroad was completed 150 years ago, in 1869. In 1800s America, some saw the railroad as a symbol of modernity and national progress. For others, however, the Transcontinental Railroad undermined the sovereignty of Native nations and threatened[…]

Sarah Winnemucca: Paiute “Princess” Who Spoke Out in the 19th Century

She was an outspoken critic of harsh treatment of the Paiute in the American West. For the first few years of her life, Sarah Winnemucca, who was born around 1844, did not know that she was American. Born Thocmetony (Shell Flower) among the Numa (known among whites as the Northern Paiute or “digger” Indians), she[…]

How Jewish Women Used Survival and Sabotage Strategies at Auschwitz

The women chose psychological sabotage and developed unique strategies. Introduction Nearly all the 1.3 million people sent to Auschwitz, the Nazi death camp in occupied Poland, were murdered – either sent to the gas chambers or worked to death. Life expectancy in many of these camps was between six weeks and three months. Over a[…]

The Struggle of the Orders: Division to New Order in Ancient Rome

Plebeians sought to enforce reform on Patricians – and it worked. First, what happened in politics at home? The Twelve Tables were one of the outcomes of what is often now called the Conflict of the Orders (the Latin word ordo meaning, among other things, ‘social rank’), which according to Roman writers dominated domestic politics in those[…]

An Overview of the Ancient Roman Conflict of the Orders

A series of struggles between the Plebeians and Patricians that would last over the span of 200 hundred years. The Struggle of the Orders, which lasted from 494 BC to 287 BC, (often referred to as the Conflict of the Orders) was a major struggle between the Plebeian Class and the Patrician Class over the[…]