Shirt Movements in Interwar Europe: A Totalitarian Fashion

Shirt movements embodied the idea of a homogeneous community, based on a racial social or cultural identity. Abstract The article deals with a typical phenomenon of the interwar period: the proliferation of socio-political movements expressing their “mood” and identity via a paramilitary uniform mainly composed of a coloured shirt. The analysis of 34 European shirt[…]

Sturmabteilung: Hitler’s Original Paramilitary Wing, the ‘Brownshirts’

After Adolf Hitler ordered the “blood purge” (Night of the Long Knives) of 1934, he replaced the SA with the SS. Introduction The Sturmabteilung, literally Storm Detachment, was the Nazi Party’s original paramilitary wing. It played a significant role in Adolf Hitler’s rise to power in the 1920s and 1930s. Its primary purposes were providing[…]

British India and the Anti-Colonial Movement during the 1918 Flu Pandemic

When the 1918 influenza pandemic struck India, the death toll was highest among the poor. Introduction In India, during the 1918 influenza pandemic, a staggering 12 to 13 million people died, the vast majority between the months of September and December. According to an eyewitness, “There was none to remove the dead bodies and the[…]

How the Wealthy Reacted to the Medieval Bubonic Plague

The wealthy fled to the countryside, while the urban poor were forced to work on the front lines. Introduction Following the 1348 Black Death in Italy, the Italian writer Giovanni Boccaccio wrote a collection of 100 novellas titled, “The Decameron.” These stories, though fictional, give us a window into medieval life during the Black Death[…]

Senātus Rōmānus: Waxing and Waning Power of the Ancient Roman Senate

An advisory council during the monarchy, politically stronger during the republic, and again weak during the empire. Introduction The Roman Senate was a governing and advisory assembly in ancient Rome. It was one of the most enduring institutions in Roman history, being established in the first days of the city of Rome (traditionally founded in[…]