A History of the Yellow Fever Vaccine

The close of the 19th century also witnessed dramatic discoveries in the new science of bacteriology that would transform medicine forever. Introduction After failed attempts at producing bacteria-based vaccines, the discovery of a viral agent causing yellow fever and its isolation in monkeys opened new avenues of research. Subsequent advances were the attenuation of the[…]

‘Resurrectionist Times’: 19th-Century Cadaver Demand for Medical Research

Public outcry against these ghoulish deeds was great. This article, The History of Burke and Hare and of the Resurrectionist Times (1884), was originally published in The Public Domain Review under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0. If you wish to reuse it please see: https://publicdomainreview.org/legal/ “Of all the criminal events that have occurred in Scotland,” George MacGregor[…]

The Concept of the General Will: Writings of Rousseau, Sièyes, and Robespierre

A comparison of the concept of the “general will” in revolutionary France. Introduction The concept of the General Will – as expressed by the French term volonté générale -was developed in the seventeenth century by writers such as Arnauld, Pascal, Malebranche, Fenélon, Bayle, and Leibniz in a theological context to mean the “general will of[…]

Charlemagne and Europe: Man and Myth in the Middle Ages

Reexamining Charlemagne through evidence from his own time, as a ruler of a recognizably European empire and as a political figure. This paper, ‘Charlemagne and Europe’, is a revised and expanded form of the lecture I read on 12 November 2013. I begin by asking what Europe has meant to medieval historians in recent times,[…]

Feeding the Gods: Human Sacrifice in the Aztec World

Other Mesoamerican cultures also engaged in human sacrifice and built tzompantlis, but the Mexica brought it to an extreme. The priest quickly sliced into the captive’s torso and removed his still-beating heart. That sacrifice, one among thousands performed in the sacred city of Tenochtitlan, would feed the gods and ensure the continued existence of the[…]