Why Did Michelangelo Use Red Chalk?

The artist used the medium to shape the human form. During his lifetime, Michelangelo likely produced tens of thousands of drawings. But being protective of his ideas, and to give an impression of effortless genius, he destroyed many of them. Today only about 600 drawings by the Renaissance artist survive. A Getty exhibition highlighted 28[…]

A History of the Ups and Downs of American Vice Presidents

The vice presidents of the United States are typically an unsung lot. Why would anyone write a book about so many little-known, powerless vice presidents? Presidential succession is the first and arguably the most important decision facing a presidential nominee. Therefore, presidential nominees should themselves be held accountable by the voters in terms of their judgment[…]

Abraham Lincoln’s Leadership in Crisis

Lincoln expertly managed leading politicians, related well with the people, and dealt clearly with the military. Introduction In March 1861, as Abraham Lincoln was inaugurated as president, the United States faced its greatest crisis: its sudden and unexpected dissolution. Seven of the then 31 states had already voted to secede from the Union. What he[…]

The Last Tyrants of Ancient Athens

Economic crisis, impoverishment, and elite conflict led Athens to be managed by individual rulers, the last tyrants of Athens. Introduction The period of the first decades of the Ist Century BC was certainly one of the most conflictive and notable moments in the history of ancient Athens. Thus, since the excellent prosperity gained as a[…]

An Ill-Defined Rule: Cassander’s Consolidation of Power in Ancient Macedonia

Cassander embarked on an ambitious plan to control the region and solidify his power in Macedonia. Cassander’s implementation of power during the early stages of his rule of Macedonia was wide ranging and multifaceted. He employed numerous different strategies to gain support from a variety of influential groups within the Macedonian homeland and adjacent areas[…]