Thomas Jefferson: One Man, Two Legacies

How different things may have been if Jefferson, Washington, and Madison had freed their slaves. When 75 Americans Who Tell the Truth portraits were shown at numerous locations around Charlottesville, Virginia, from January through April of this year, three of them, Frederick Douglass, John Lewis and Fannie Lou Hamer, were exhibited at Monticello, the celebrated[…]

Remembering, History, and Identity: The Sculpted Life of Benjamin Franklin

The statues of Benjamin Franklin perfectly exemplify the interrelation between history and memory. By Mert DenizPhD StudentAmerican Culture and Literature DepartmentHacettepe University Abstract History and memory are always in interaction as history is the craft of composing fragments of memory into an understandable narrative, so it serves as a medium of transferring memories between individuals,[…]

A History of Colonial Brazil

The Portuguese colonization of Brazil was initially quite different from the Spanish conquest of the Americas. Introduction Although news of Christopher Columbus’s “discovery” of the Americas had already spread across Europe, the Portuguese stumbled upon Brazil by accident. In 1498, Vasco da Gama successfully sailed from Portugal around the southern tip of Africa to India,[…]

Remembering the Toxcatl Massacre: The Beginning of the End of Aztec Supremacy

A seminal manuscript tells the Indigenous side of a historic battle. Competing Histories This May marks 500 years since the Toxcatl massacre, in which Indigenous people were killed during a festival that took place in the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan (today’s Mexico City). Two competing histories of this event exist. In the Spanish telling, the[…]

Medieval and Early Modern Windmill Architecture and Technology

Historical aspects in the transformation of the windmill’s architectural forms, structures, and elements. Introduction The modern wind-power engineering is one of the perspective directions of using ecological clean energy. Renewable energy sources used to ensure energy supply can be considered to be an upcoming trend for civil engineering [1-10]. The article deals with the historical[…]

Water: The Fuel for the Medieval Industrial Revolution

The owners of waterwheels and their mills were the first barons of industry after the so-called ‘Dark Ages’. Despite the greatest industrial complex of the Roman Empire being the imperial grain mill at Barbegal near Arles in what is now southern France, and the knowledge of gearing used for the mill, the waterwheel (the power[…]