Gender Roles in 19th-Century Victorian Patriarchy

From marriage and sexuality to education and rights, looking at attitudes towards gender in 19th-century Britain. Introduction During the Victorian period men and women’s roles became more sharply defined than at any time in history. In earlier centuries it had been usual for women to work alongside husbands and brothers in the family business. Living[…]

Masculine Ideals of Dress in the Nineteenth Century

During the nineteenth century, the dress of men differed markedly from that of the previous century. Introduction While the skill of a portrait artist is often judged by whether or not the work resembles the sitter, a portrait may also reveal something about the sitter as well as fashionable norms of the time. What does[…]

The Great Occidental Schism: Division in the Catholic Church, 1378-1417

The affair is sometimes referred to as the Great Schism, but this term is typically reserved for the more enduring East–West Schism of 1054. Introduction The Western Schism, also called Papal Schism, Great Occidental Schism and Schism of 1378, was a split within the Catholic Church lasting from 1378 to 1417[1] in which two men[…]

Guelphs vs. Ghibellines: Medieval Division between Papal and Imperial Support

The division between the Guelphs and Ghibellines in Italy, fueled by the imperial Great Interregnum, persisted until the 15th century. Introduction The Guelphs and Ghibellines were factions supporting the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, respectively, in the Italian city-states of central and northern Italy. During the 12th and 13th centuries, rivalry between these two[…]