Pope Pius XII and Minimization of the Holocaust

The Pope and the president both opted to look away from the greatest humanitarian crisis of our time. Researchers combing through recently-opened wartime records of the Vatican have discovered that a senior papal adviser, Angelo Dell’Acqua, told Pius XII in 1942 that reports of the slaughter of European Jews were unreliable because Jews “easily exaggerate.”[…]

How Lincoln’s Assassination Stunned the Nation

The timing of the assassination made Easter Sunday 1865 a particularly important—and confusing—occasion. Shot on Good Friday and dead on Saturday: The timing of the assassination made Easter Sunday 1865 a particularly important—and confusing—occasion, as shocked mourners came to church for what should have been a day of rejoicing over both the resurrection of Christ[…]

Loyalist Lawyers: Exiles from the American Revolution

These men fled to a variety of destinations, including modern-day Canada, the Caribbean, and France. I’m investigating lawyers who lived in 18th century Boston, Philadelphia, and Charleston. Towards the end of the century, these individuals took a leading role in conducting the American Revolution, and also in the creation of the legal structures that became[…]

Saladin’s Conquest of Jerusalem in 1187 CE

The pulverizing defeat at Hattin had left most of the Crusader strongholds without enough soldiers to defend them. Introduction and Prelude Jerusalem, a holy city for the adherents of all three great monotheistic religions (Judaism, Christianity, and Islam) was conquered by the armies of the First Crusade in 1099 CE. The Muslims failed to halt their[…]

The Arabic Ridda Wars of Apostasy, 632-633 CE

The rebellious Arabian tribes declared that their pact with Muhammad was personal and that they felt no obligation to serve the new empire. Introduction The Ridda Wars or the Wars of Apostasy (632-633 CE) were a series of military engagements between the armies of the Rashidun Caliphate (632-661 CE) and the renegade tribes of Arabia.[…]