A Brief Historical Overview of FDR’s Two ‘New Deals’

The term New Deal derives from Franklin Roosevelt’s 1932 speech accepting the Democratic Party’s nomination for president. Introduction The New Deal was a set of domestic policies enacted under President Franklin D. Roosevelt that dramatically expanded the federal government’s role in the economy in response to the Great Depression. Historians commonly speak of a First[…]

Executive Order 9066: Exclusion and Ostracization under FDR

With war approaching, Roosevelt sought information on Japanese Americans from government intelligence agencies. Introduction The 32nd president of the United States, President Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882–1945), signed Executive Order 9066 , which authorized the mass removal of all persons of Japanese descent from the West Coast. Roosevelt then approved their subsequent incarceration in concentration camps. Perhaps[…]

Education, Religion, Art, and Geography during the European Renaissance

Looking at developments that shaped culture during the period. Introduction Few historical concepts have such powerful resonance as the Renaissance. Usually used to describe the rediscovery of classical Roman and Greek culture in the late 1300s and 1400s and the great pan-European flowering in art, architecture, literature, science, music, philosophy and politics that this inspired,[…]

Charlemagne’s Educational, Economic, Religious, and Political Reforms

Charlemagne took a serious interest in scholarship, promoting the liberal arts at the court, and encouraging education. Introduction – The Carolingian Renaissance As emperor, Charlemagne stood out for his many reforms—monetary, governmental, military, cultural, and ecclesiastical. He was the main initiator and proponent of the “Carolingian Renaissance,” the first of three medieval renaissances. It was[…]

India’s Goddesses of Contagion: Protection, Unless You Make them Mad!

Goddesses have traditionally protected against sickness and cured the ill, according to Hindu belief. But there’s a catch. Introduction Hindus in India have had a helping hand – several in fact – when it comes to fighting deadly contagions like COVID-19: multi-armed goddesses co-opted to help contain and kill pestilence. Collectively known as “Amman,” or[…]

Charvaka: Understanding the Material World in the Philosophy of Ancient India

Materialism holds that perceivable matter is all that exists, while supernatural entities or planes of existence are imagined. Introduction Charvaka (also given as Carvaka) was a philosophical school of thought, developed in India c. 600 BCE, stressing materialism as the means by which one understands and lives in the world. Materialism holds that perceivable matter[…]