Causes of the War of 1812

Relations, commerce, and territorial expansion were at the root of the conflict. Introduction As an important neutral trading nation, the United States became ensnarled in the broader European conflict that pitted Napoleonic France against Great Britain and her continental allies. France Bans Neutral Trade with Britain In 1806 France prohibited all neutral trade with Great[…]

How Ancient Romans Kept Their Cool

Airflow, water fountains, and shade. Dark green leaves flutter in the breeze; water splashes in a fountain; the shade deepens along a covered colonnade. It might be a hot day, but it feels like the temperature has fallen a few degrees. That’s how a summer afternoon feels at the Getty Villa—and that’s how it might[…]

Indigenous Navigation and Settlement of the Ancient Pacific

By 10,000 years ago, humans had migrated to most habitable lands that could be reached on foot. The islands of the Pacific remained. Introduction Indigenous navigation of the Pacific Ocean and its settlement began thousands of years ago. The inhabitants of the Pacific islands had been voyaging across vast expanses of ocean water sailing in[…]