A Public Right to Know: Woodrow Wilson’s Hidden Stroke of 1919

Examining Woodrow Wilson’s stroke, the historical implications of his health decline, and its impact on United States foreign policy. Introduction World War I catapulted the United States from traditional isolationism to international involvement in a major European conflict. Woodrow Wilson envisaged a permanent American imprint on democracy in world affairs through participation in the League[…]

A History of Presidents Hiding Health Problems since Grover Cleveland

How U.S. presidents and their administrations have handled information about presidential health problems. At a press briefing in 1893, President Grover Cleveland’s secretary of war told inquiring journalists that their speculations about the president having surgery were wrong. The nation was in a recession, and Cleveland feared that his economic plan would be doomed if[…]

Long Live the Queen: The The Wilcox Rebellion of 1895 in Hawai’i

Because of its brevity and lack of casualties, this conflict is largely forgotten. Introduction The 1895 Wilcox rebellion was a brief war from January 6 to January 9, 1895, that consisted of three battles on the island of Oʻahu, Republic of Hawaii. It was the last major military operation by royalists who opposed the overthrow[…]

The Navigation Acts and the Boston Revolt of 1689

A group of well-organized militia and citizens rose up to arrest officials in response to the Navigation Acts ignoring land titles. Introduction The 1689 Boston revolt was a popular uprising on April 18, 1689 against the rule of Sir Edmund Andros, the governor of the Dominion of New England. A well-organized “mob” of provincial militia[…]

How to Understand the Structure of CRO Companies

CRO (Contract Research Organization) companies can vary in size from global companies to small specialized groups. CRO companies offer services across all clinical trial phases and therapeutic areas including Feasibility Assessments, Ethics Committee, Regulatory Submissions, Data Management, Statistical Analysis, Medical Monitoring, Safety Services, Central Lab Services, Medical Write Ups and Project and Vendor Management. The[…]