Three Medieval Monarchs and Transparent Rule

Monarchs and prime ministers have spent centuries working out which decisions need to be made in public. Introduction When the English parliamentary system emerged, it was built on a cherished principle: rulers had to take advice from a representative body of subjects before making a major decision, and whether they followed that advice or not,[…]

The Rise of New Monarchies in Late Medieval Europe

Monarchs were demolishing the medieval feudal political system and building strong central government in its place. Introduction Between 1450 and 1550, Renaissance humanism reshaped European education, literature, the arts, music, and political theory. It also exposed corruption and fallacies within the Roman Catholic Church. It was a profound rejection of medieval scholasticism and traditional practices.[…]

Biology in the Ancient and Medieval Eras

The earliest humans had and passed on knowledge about plants and animals to increase their chances of survival. Introduction The history of biology traces the study of the living world from ancient to modern times. Although the concept of biology as a single coherent field arose in the 19th century, the biological sciences emerged from[…]

A History of Science in Ancient Cultures

Exploring scientific work and thought in ancient Mesopotamia, Egypt, Persia, Greece, Rome, India, and China. Introduction The history of science in early cultures refers to the study of protoscience in ancient history, prior to the development of science in the Middle Ages. In prehistoric times, advice and knowledge was passed from generation to generation in[…]

What to Do if Your Social Security Number is Stolen

Of all the data to which a hacker can gain access, your Social Security number is one of the most problematic. The havoc they can wreak upon your life with those nine digits in hand is limited only by the scope of the usurper’s imagination. Sadly, security breaches in which this information is being compromised[…]