As the Western Roman Empire collapsed, landholders gradually transitioned from outright slavery to serfdom. What Is Feudalism? Let’s imagine that you’re a poor European farmer in the Middle Ages. Here’s the political situation: you don’t own the land you live on. It’s rented from a baron or a duke. You and your neighbors share a[…]
The interests of labor or how the lower orders earned their living or conducted their affairs was never well recorded. By Carroll D. Wright, J.D.United States Commissioner of Labor, 1885-1905 NOTE: This article, now in the public domain, was written by Mr. Wright in 1905 and the terminology reflects the time and usage in that[…]
The funeral procession was marked by the movement of bodies, both living and dead, and the loud noise that it generated. By Steven Fife Introduction The Roman funeral was a rite of passage that signified the transition between the states of life and death. It was very important to conduct the proper ceremonies and burial in order to avoid having[…]
Tombs include arts and goods that indicate person’s economic and social rank. Originally published by the Journal of the Etruscan Foundation 7:3 (2000, 35-49), free and open access, republished for educational, non-commercial purposes.
Many of us love a tipple. Alcohol lowers our inhibitions and gives us a false sense of confidence. For social situations, these are great effects. However, alcohol hasn’t always been exclusively a vehicle for getting us trolleyed. It’s been important for our very survival as a species. Yet, people throughout history have certainly enjoyed, and[…]