Serfdom in Medieval Feudal Europe

As the Western Roman Empire collapsed, landholders gradually transitioned from outright slavery to serfdom. What Is Feudalism? Let’s imagine that you’re a poor European farmer in the Middle Ages. Here’s the political situation: you don’t own the land you live on. It’s rented from a baron or a duke. You and your neighbors share a[…]

Labor Organizations in Ancient and Medieval Times

The interests of labor or how the lower orders earned their living or conducted their affairs was never well recorded. By Carroll D. Wright, J.D.United States Commissioner of Labor, 1885-1905 NOTE: This article, now in the public domain, was written by Mr. Wright in 1905 and the terminology reflects the time and usage in that[…]

The Evolution of Beer Induced Fun

Many of us love a tipple. Alcohol lowers our inhibitions and gives us a false sense of confidence. For social situations, these are great effects. However, alcohol hasn’t always been exclusively a vehicle for getting us trolleyed. It’s been important for our very survival as a species. Yet, people throughout history have certainly enjoyed, and[…]