Battlefield O’ahu: Japan’s Opening Attack on Pearl Harbor

The attack came with no warning, as aircraft emblazoned with red disks bore down on the moored ships from all directions. Introduction Just before 8 am on Sunday morning, December 7, 1941, many of the sailors aboard naval vessels moored in Pearl Harbor were getting ready for leave and preparing for church services. In a[…]

The Path to Pearl Harbor

When Germany and Italy declared war on the United States days later, America found itself in a global war. The Roots of the Conflict While Japan’s deadly assault on Pearl Harbor stunned Americans, its roots stretched back more than four decades. As Japan industrialized during the late 19th century, it sought to imitate Western countries[…]

Lang Jingshan and Early Chinese Photography

Photography arrived in China from Europe in the mid-nineteenth century. Introduction Can a photograph be appreciated in the manner of a Chinese painting? This is the question that Lang Jingshan (also spelled Long Chin-San, 1892–1995, born in Jiangsu Province), a pioneer of early art photography in China and the so-called “father of Asian photography,” asked[…]

An Introduction to Ancient and Medieval Chinese Calligraphy

In the general order of their appearance, there are: seal script, clerical script, cursive script, running script, and standard script. Art of the Line Calligraphy is the world’s oldest abstract art—the art of the line. This basic visual element can also hold a symbolic charge. Nowhere has the symbolic power of the line manifested itself[…]