Migrants and Immigrants in Europe since the 1950s: An Historical and Demographic Perspective

Distinguishing between different origins of migrants as well as migration motives. Introduction This outlines the general developments of migration within and towards Europe as well as patterns of settlement of migrants since the 1950s. We take as our starting point the bilateral labour migration agreements signed by several European countries in the 1950s and 1960s.[…]

Eight Waves of Migration and Human Relationships since 1845

Looking at the causes, effects, and impacts of different waves of migration. Introduction Immigration and refugees have long been debated in US political discourse. Given the current controversies surrounding human migration, we thought it would be useful to dig up some resources that examine the environmental contexts of historical immigrant and refugee waves. In some cases,[…]

An Introduction to Icons in the Medieval Byzantine Empire

Christians initially disagreed over whether religious images were good or bad, resulting in the iconoclasm controversy. What Is an Icon? In our time, we often refer to celebrities as cultural icons, pop icons, and fashion icons. Rebels are sometimes labeled iconoclasts. Icons are also the little images that populate the screens of our computers, phones, and[…]

The Chronological Periods of the Byzantine Empire

Introducing the periods of Byzantine history, with attention to developments in art and architecture. From Rome to Constantinople In 313, the Roman Empire legalized Christianity, beginning a process that would eventually dismantle its centuries-old pagan tradition. Not long after, emperor Constantine transferred the empire’s capital from Rome to the ancient Greek city of Byzantion (modern[…]