Electing Fascism: The German Referendum of 1934

Hitler used the referendum to legitimize his move to take the title Führer und Reichskanzler (Führer and Chancellor). Introduction and Background A referendum on merging the posts of Chancellor and President was held in Germany on 19 August 1934,[1] seventeen days after the death of President Paul von Hindenburg. The leadership of Nazi Germany sought[…]

Fin De Siècle and the Rise of Fascism

The fin-de-siècle generation condemned the rationalistic individualism of liberal society and the dissolution of social links in bourgeois society. Defining Fascism and Its Early History Overview Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian nationalism that came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe. The first fascist movements emerged in Italy during World War I, then spread[…]

The Rise and Fall of Fascism in Italy

It’s final collapse was brought about by Allied military victories plus the open rebellion of the people. By Dr. Mario EinaudiLate Professor of GovernmentCornell University Introduction From his birth in 1883 to the day of his death in 1945 Benito Mussolini was many things to many men. Son of a blacksmith of radical persuasion, Mussolini[…]

An Analysis of the Techniques of Nazi Propaganda

Hitler (left) and Nazi Propaganda Minister Göbbels (center) / National Archives and Records Administration, Wikimedia Commons Looking k at the calculated methodology adopted by the Nazi party under the guidance of both Adolf Hitler and Joseph Göbbels. By Dr. Karthik Narayanaswami Harvard University Introduction As we examine the chronology of events leading up to the Holocaust, it[…]

Dictatorship and Totalitarianism in World War II

Examining the rise of Hitler, Mussolini, and Stalin. Edited by Matthew A. McIntosh / 10.08.2018 Historian Brewminate Editor-in-Chief Germany: Adolf Hitler The Weimar Republic The rebellion, November 1918 / German Federal Archives, Wikimedia Commons Following the complete collapse of Germany’s armed forces throughout the waning months of 1918, German generals and politicians desperately sought to[…]

Surveillance under Mussolini’s Regime

The March on Rome: From left to right – unknown, Benito Mussolini, Cesare Maria de Vecchi and Michele Bianchi in 1922 / Wikimedia Commons Examining state surveillance under Mussolini’s regime (1922–1943) in Italy. By Dr. Chiara Fonio Professor of Sociology Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore Abstract This paper focuses on state surveillance under Mussolini’s regime[…]

World War II: The Rise of Fascism and Nazism

Click image to enlarge The years between the First and Second World Wars were politically and economically tumultuous for the United States and especially for the world. Edited by Matthew A. McIntosh / 08.12.2018 Historian Brewminate Editor-in-Chief Introduction The years between the First and Second World Wars were politically and economically tumultuous for the United[…]

Stalin, Hitler, and Mussolini: A Trifecta of 20th-Century Tyranny

Seduction, propaganda, and ultimate power and control. Edited by Matthew A. McIntosh / 08.05.2018 Historian Brewminate Editor-in-Chief Benito Mussolini and Fascism in Italy (1922-1939) Mussolini in an official portrait / Wikimedia Commons Benito Mussolini, born into a poor blacksmith’s family, was so named by his radically socialist father (his mother was a devout Catholic schoolteacher)[…]

Fascism and Nazism: The Similarities and Differences Examined

Adolph Hitler and Benito Mussolini / German Federal Archives via Wikimedia Commons By Dr. Richard Adewale Elewomawu / 01.2018 Professor of Political Science Kogi State College of Education, Nigeria Fascism was a system of government that reigned in Europe between the First and Second World Wars. It was a far-right form of government which was[…]