The Battle of Issus: Alexander’s Rematch with Darius

Darius took personal command of his army for this encounter and led them to a resounding defeat. Introduction The Battle of Issus (also Issos) occurred in southern Anatolia, on November 5, 333 BC between the Hellenic League led by Alexander the Great and the Achaemenid Empire, led by Darius III, in the second great battle[…]

Battle of the Granicus: Alexander the Great’s Opening Move on Persia

It was here, against all odds, that Alexander defeated the forces of the Persian satraps of Asia Minor. Introduction The Battle of the Granicus River in May 334 BC was the first of three major battles fought between Alexander the Great and the Persian Empire. Fought in northwestern Asia Minor, near the site of Troy,[…]

The Ancient Macedonian Conquest of Persia

The conquest of Persia was not preordained and those living within its vast empire could never foresee its fall. Introduction In the year 356 BC, the Persian Empire still stood strong and seemed as if it would last another hundred years. However, on the 20th of July a sign was sent that brought the men of[…]

The Battle of Gaugamela, 331 BCE

Alexander the Great pushed east into Mesopotamia with the intention of bringing Darius to battle. Introduction After securing the eastern Mediterranean seaboard and Egypt, Alexander the Great pushed east into Mesopotamia with the intention of bringing Darius to battle. After crossing the Euphrates River unopposed, he marched his army eastward along the foothills of the[…]

Alexander the Great’s Defeat of Darius at the Battle of the Granicus River, 334 BCE

The attack had been six years in the making, and still, the Persians were not fully prepared. War between the Persians and Macedonians had become inevitable when Persia had supported the Perinthians’ resistance against Macedonian aggression in 340. When the Macedonian king Philip II had secured his rear in the battle of Chaeronea (338), he wanted to launch a campaign east of[…]

Revenge for Athens: Alexander the Great and the Burning of Persepolis

After looting its treasures, Alexander burned the great palace and surrounding city to the ground, as Xerxes had done to Athens. In the year 330 BCE Alexander the Great conquered the Persian capital city of Persepolis, and after looting its treasures, burned the great palace and surrounding city to the ground. Persepolis had been known in antiquity as Parsa (`The City of[…]

The Seleucid Empire after Alexander the Great: Anatolia and Beyond

The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Great’s empire, which at its height included central Anatolia and well beyond. Introduction The Seleucid Empire (312 – 60 B.C.E.) was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Great’s dominion, which at its height included central Anatolia, the Levant, Mesopotamia, Persia, Turkmenistan, Pamir, and[…]

Ptolemy I Soter: Greek Founder of Egypt’s Ptolemaic Dynasty

The synthesis of Greek and Egyptian customs, beliefs and practices created by Ptolemy I and his heirs remains a subject for study and research. Introduction Ptolemy I Soter (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Σωτήρ, Ptolemaĩos Sōtḗr, i.e., Ptolemy the Savior, (ca. 367 B.C.E. — ca. 283 B.C.E.) was a Macedoniaian general under Alexander the Great who became ruler of Egypt (323 B.C.E. — 283 B.C.E.) and founder of Ptolemaic dynasty which ruled Egypt until the Roman conquest in 30 C.E. In[…]

Dividing the Spoils: The Babylon Conferences for the Empire of Alexander the Great

Immediately after the death of Alexander the Great, the power play began. By Robin WaterfieldBritish Classics Scholar and Author Introduction Immediately after Alexander’s death, while the embalmers got busy with his body, those of his senior officers who were present in Babylon met and began to make arrangements for the future. The power play began.[…]

A Medical-Historical Examination of the Death of Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great’s cause of death has been contentious since antiquity.    By Nathan Gamble (left) and Dr. Edmund F. Bloedow (right)Gamble: Researcher in Bioethics and Law, University of TorontoBloedow: Professor of Classics, Augustine College Abstract Alexander the Great’s cause of death has been contentious since antiquity. Historians and physicians alike have proposed a multitude[…]