Galatia: Gauls in Ancient Anatolia (Modern Turkey)

The Galatian Celts retained their culture at first, continuing to observe their ancient religious festivals and rituals. Introduction Galatia was a region in north-central Anatolia (modern-day Turkey) settled by the Celtic Gauls c. 278-277 BCE. The name comes from the Greek for “Gaul” which was repeated by Latin writers as Galli. The Celts were offered[…]

Peoples of Ancient Anatolia (Modern Turkey)

These peoples were among the oldest Indo-European ethnolinguistic groups, one of the most archaic Introduction Anatolians were Indo-European peoples of the Near East identified by their use of the Anatolian languages.[1] These peoples were among the oldest Indo-European ethnolinguistic groups, one of the most archaic, because Anatolians were the first or among the first branches[…]

Ten Hidden Ancient Treasures in Caria, Turkey

Caria was ruled by satraps who were subject to Cyrus the Great. Introduction Located at the crossroads of many ancient civilizations, Turkey is a haven for archaeology lovers. Over the centuries, a succession of empires and kingdoms – Hittite, Lydian, Persian, Greek, Roman, Byzantine and, finally, Ottoman – ruled over Anatolia. The country’s unique cultural[…]

Antiochia ad Cragum: Deserted City of Ancient Cilicia Trachea

The city was located in an area previously associated with the Cilician pirates. Introduction Antiochia ad Cragum (“Antioch on the Cliffs” or “Antioch at Cragus”) was a Hellenistic Roman city located in Cilicia Trachea (“Rough Cilicia”, also known as Cilicia Aspera and Cilicia Secunda) on the southern coast of modern-day Turkey (in the Gazipasa district of the Antalya province). It was founded c.[…]

Conflict and Celts: The Creation of Ancient Galatia

Galatia was situated in eastern Phrygia, a region now within modern-day Turkey. By Jeffrey KingHistorian Introduction Galatia was the most long-lasting and powerful Celtic settlement outside of Europe. It was the only kingdom of note to be forged during the Celtic invasions of the Mediterranean in the 4th and 3rd centuries BCE. From its foundation,[…]

Ancient Antioch and the Tetrapolis of the Seleucid Empire

This tetrapolis (“land of four cities”) was to remain the core of the Seleucid Empire. Antioch was probably founded in 307 BCE as Antigoneia by one of the successors of the Macedonian conqueror Alexander the Great, Antigonus Monophthalmus. The details are unclear, but we know of the existence of this earlier city, and we know it was more ore less in[…]

Lycia: Mysterious Sea Peoples of Ancient Southwest Anatolia

Lycians are associated with a group known as the Sea Peoples in Hittite and Egyptian texts. Introduction Lycia is a mountainous region in south-west Anatolia (also known as Asia Minor, modern-day Turkey). The earliest references to Lycia can be traced through Hittite texts to sometime before 1200 BCE, where it is known as the Lukka[…]

Side: The ‘Pomegranate’ Greek Colony in Ancient Anatolia (Modern Turkey)

Strabo tells us that the city of Side was founded around the 7th century BCE by Greek colonizers from Kyme in Aeolis. By Dr. Jenni IrvingAncient Historian Introduction Side (Σίδη, meaning pomegranate) is located in the region of Pamphylia in Anatolia (modern-day Turkey) and was both a prosperous Aegean trading centre in Hellenistic and Roman[…]

Göbekli Tepe: The World’s First Temple?

The fact that hunter–gatherer peoples could organize the construction of such a complex site as far back as the 10th or 11th millennium BC poses a serious challenge to the conventional view of the rise of civilization. Introduction Located in modern Turkey, Göbekli Tepe is one of the most important archaeological sites in the world. The[…]