Dilmun: Ancient Polity of Modern Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, and Saudi Arabia

The great commercial and trading connections between Mesopotamia and Dilmun were strong and profound. Introduction Dilmun, or Telmun,[2] (Arabic: دلمون) was an ancient Semitic-speaking polity in Arabia mentioned from the 3rd millennium BC onwards.[3][4] Based on textual evidence, it was located in the Persian Gulf, on a trade route between Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley Civilization, close to the[…]

Kahina: Early Medieval Berber Warrior-Queen Standing against Arab Invasion

Kahina’s life is only known through later Arab historians writing on the Muslim conquest of Africa. Introduction Kahina (7th century CE) was a Berber (Imazighen) warrior-queen and seer who led her people against the Arab Invasion of North Africa in the 7th century CE. She is also known as al-Kahina, Dihya al-Kahina, Dahlia, Daya, and Dahia-al-Kahina. Her birth[…]