Mount Nemrut: Ancient Meeting Place between East and West

Often referred to as the “Throne of the Gods”, few know of the history or function of this extraordinary site. Introduction Mount Nemrut is located at the heart of what was the Kingdom of Commagene, a small Hellenised Armenian kingdom that carved its place in history from the living rock. In 62 BCE, King Antiochus I (70-31[…]

Armenians in the Ottoman Empire

They were part of the Armenian millet until the Tanzimat reforms in the nineteenth century equalized all Ottoman citizens before the law. Background The Ottomans introduced a number of unique approaches to governing into the traditions of Islam. Islamic culture did not separate religious and secular matters. At first, the Sultan was the highest power[…]

The Armenian Genocide: Turkey’s ‘Great Calamity’ of World War One

The event is also said to be the second-most studied case of genocide, and often draws comparison with the Holocaust. Introduction The Armenian Genocide—also known as the Armenian Holocaust, Great Calamity or the Armenian Massacre—refers to the forced mass evacuation and related deaths of hundreds of thousands or over a million Armenians, during the government[…]

The Zvartnots Cathedral of Medieval Armenia

Zvartnots Cathedral was constructed at a time of much chaos in Near East. Introduction The ruins of Zvartnots Cathedral are located on a flat plain within the Ararat Plateau between the cities of Yerevan and Etchmiadzin in Armenia’s Armavir province near Zvartnots International Airport. Built in the middle of the 7th century CE, under the[…]

The Early Christianization of Armenia

Saint Gregory the Illuminator or Enlightener established Christianity as the official religion of ancient Armenia. By Mark CartwrightHistorian Introduction The Christianization of Armenia began with the work of Syrian apostles from the 1st century CE and was boosted in the early 4th century CE by such figures as Saint Gregory the Illuminator, who converted the[…]

Ancient Cilicia in Anatolia, from the Hittites to Armenia

Because of its geography and location, Cilicia was among the most important regions of the classical world. Introduction Cilicia is the ancient Roman name for the southeastern region of Asia Minor (modern-day Turkey). It is referenced in the biblical books of Acts and Galatians, was the birthplace of Saint Paul, and the site of his early evangelical missions. The territory was first[…]

The Differences between Ancient and Medieval Byzantine and Armenian Christianity

The types of Christianity they professed had important differences that led to a lack of recognition and tensions between the two groups. Introduction Although both the Byzantines and the Armenians were Christian, the types of Christianity they professed had important differences that led to a lack of recognition and tensions between the two groups and[…]

Relations between Late Antique-Early Medieval Armenia and the Byzantine Empire

The relationship between the Byzantine Empire and ancient Armenia was a constant and varied one with an equal mix of wars, occupations, treaties of friendship, mutual military aid, and cultural exchange. By Mark CartwrightHistorian Introduction Regarded as a vital defence to the Empire’s eastern frontiers, emperors used various means of influence from outright takeover to gifts[…]

The Unique Identity of Ancient Armenia

Its first recorded state proper was the kingdom of Urartu from the 9th century BCE. By Mark CartwrightHistorian Introduction Ancient Armenia, located in the south Caucasus area of Eurasia, was settled in the Neolithic era but its first recorded state proper was the kingdom of Urartu from the 9th century BCE. Incorporated into the Persian Empire of Cyrus the Great in the 6th century[…]

A Triumvirate of Tyranny: The Three Pashas and the Armenian Genocide

Until the late ninteenth century, the Armenians were referred to as millet-i sadika (loyal nation) by the Ottomans. Introduction The Armenian Genocide—also known as the Armenian Holocaust, Great Calamity or the Armenian Massacre—refers to the forced mass evacuation and related deaths of hundreds of thousands or over a million Armenians, during the government of the Young Turks from 1915 to[…]