Culture and Identity in Classical Greece

Classical Greece saw a flourishing of philosophers, especially in Athens during its Golden Age. Philosophy Socrates Socrates, born in Athens in the 5th century BCE, marks a watershed in ancient Greek philosophy. Athens was a center of learning, with sophists and philosophers traveling from across Greece to teach rhetoric, astronomy, cosmology, geometry, and the like.[…]

A History of Korean Literature since the Classical Period

The development of Korean literature is quite unique due to the creation of a complete new language and writing system. Introduction Korean literature is the body of literature produced in Korea or by Korean writers. For much of history, it was written both in classical Chinese and in Korean, first using the transcription systems idu[…]

Julius Pomponius Laetus and the Medieval Revival of Classical Rome

Laetus emulated the life of the ancient Romans, living in a modest house on the Esquiline. Introduction Julius Pomponius Laetus, also known as Giulio Pomponio Leto, (1425 – 1498) was an Italian humanist, archaeologist, and Latinist who promoted the revival of ancient Roman classics and the traditions they represented. From his youth, he devoted himself[…]

Classical Education in the Eighteenth Century: Toward Reason and Rationality

The Enlightenment of the late 17th and the 18th century called for the re-examination of classical concepts. By Megan Pettingill and Lillianah Shabo Introduction An immense interest in classical education emerged during the eighteenth century, demonstrating that a classical education was still revered in educational circles as the apex of intellectual training. Its notions have[…]

Classical Architecture in Viceregal Mexico

In the sixteenth century, cities were considered to embody an ideal of sophisticated and refined living. The Renaissance – Not Just in Italy The term “renaissance” generally invokes images of Italian cities, buildings, and artworks, rather than images of American ones. However, the renaissance had tremendous repercussions on the American continents, and its influence can[…]

Culture and Society in Classical Athens

Athenian prominence in the story of Classical Greece is no accident. Introduction As mentioned in the previous chapter, the prosperity and cultural achievements of Athens in the mid-fifth century B.C. have led to this period being called a Golden Age in the city-state’s history. The state of the surviving ancient evidence, which consistently comes more[…]

Ancient Ruins: Parts of the Past as Well as the Present

A mysterious object carved on a Roman gem reminds us that the smallest things hold clues to life in classical times. Introduction Recently, a whole trove of small ancient gems and amulets was discovered in a house in Pompeii. Treasured possessions for the Greeks and the Romans, ancient gems were often carved with images from myth or[…]

The Grand Strategy of Classical Sparta

The Lacedaemonians abandoned the grand strategy they had articulated early on. Introduction In ancient Lacedaemon, as in all enduring political communities, there was a symbiotic relationship between the form of government chosen, the way of life that this form of government fostered, and the grand strategy that the community gradually articulated for the defense of[…]

Religious Dimensions of Classical and Contemporary Islamic Art

Analyzing classical religious influences on the work of Ehab Mamdouh. Abstract This paper focuses on the work of Egyptian Islamic contemporary artist Ehab Mamdouh who grew up in Saudi Arabia, then moved to Cairo, where he was exposed to religious, historical concepts and art forms, then came back to work in Saudi Arabia to observe[…]