The Historical Background and Development of Social Security

The Great Depression of the 1930s was not the only one in America’s history. Traditional Sources of Economic Security All peoples throughout all of human history have faced the uncertainties brought on by unemployment, illness, disability, death and old age. In the realm of economics, these inevitable facets of life are said to be threats[…]

A Brief History of the Fight for Economic Equality since the Early Republic

Fears of great wealth and the need for economic equality go back to the country’s origins. Introduction Americans are increasingly worried about the rising tide of economic inequality, as fewer control more wealth. For the origins of these concerns, commentators usually point to the Gilded Age at the end of the 19th century, when a[…]

The Decline of Feudalism in the Medieval World

Exploring the key events that contributed to the decline of feudalism in Europe from the 12th through the 15th centuries. Introduction In England, several political changes in the 12th and 13th centuries helped to weaken feudalism. A famous document known as Magna Carta, or Great Charter, dates from this time. Magna Carta was a written[…]

Causes and Consequences of the Great Depression

Many factors, including World War I and its aftermath, set the stage for this economic disaster. Factors Leading to the Great Depression The stock market crash on October 24, 1929, marked the beginning of the Great Depression in the United States. The day became known as “Black Thursday,” Many factors had led to that moment.[…]

The Crédit Mobilier Scandal: Politicians and Corporate Fraud in the Gilded Age

The scandal caused widespread public distrust of Congress and the federal government during the Gilded Age. Introduction The Crédit Mobilier scandal of 1867, which came to public attention in 1872, was a two-part fraud by the Union Pacific Railroad and the Crédit Mobilier of America construction company in the building of the eastern portion of[…]

Gilded Age Scandal and Corruption

In the wake of Andrew Johnson’s impeachment, the American public grew tired of politicians and political wrangling. The Tweed Ring and Machine Politics The late nineteenth and very early twentieth centuries in America are often referred to as the “Gilded Age.” The origin of this name is usually attributed to Mark Twain who co-authored a[…]

Politics and Corruption in the Gilded Age, 1865-1900

During the Gilded Age, Congress was known for being rowdy and inefficient. Introduction At the outset of the Civil War the federal government had been stretched far beyond its limits to cope with the extraordinary demands of supporting an army of over one million men. That demand ended once the war was over, but new[…]

A General Strike on San Francisco’s Waterfront in 1901

At the heart of the struggle was the continuing story that new unions were claiming freedoms and asserting their human rights. Introduction Only seven years after the defeat of the American Railway Union’s 1894 strike, a massive, three month long strike on the San Francisco waterfront resulted in a triumph for the rank and file[…]

Economic Growth in Medieval China

During this period, China’s huge cities dwarfed the cities of medieval Europe. Introduction The Song period was a time of great prosperity in China. Changes in agriculture, especially a boom in the production of rice, fueled the growth of the economy. Trade and business flourished. These developments had started during the Tang dynasty. Under the[…]

Medieval China’s Contacts with the Outside World

Exploring how the Chinese both welcomed and rejected foreign contacts. Introduction At times, the Chinese welcomed foreign contacts. Great cultural exchange resulted as new ideas and products flowed into and out of China. Buddhism, which originally came from India, reached its height of influence during the Tang dynasty. A Chinese monk, Xuan Zang (zhwoo-AN ZANG),[…]

How to Maintain Medical Accounts Receivable Collections?

Introduction Once a medical practice bills a patient for the provided services, the amount delivered by the patients to the practitioners is called AR (Account Receivables). It can be classified by the time of patient billing. If your practice is in AR for 20 days, it means that you have not received payment of 20[…]

Poverty in Ancient Greece and Israel: Plato’s Nomoi and Deuteronomy, a Comparison

Plato’s Nomoi and the Book of Deuteronomy dealt intensively with the fissures between rich and poor within society. Abstract The way in which a nation’s economy is structured is of great importance for the material welfare of its people as well as the people’s relationship with the state and the operation of the state itself.[…]

Poverty in Ancient Greece

Elites feared falling into poverty and tried to keep the evil eye away with laughable figures. By Estelle Galbois and Sylvie Rougier-Blanc The poor and poverty in Antiquity must be considered as true objects of historical, philosophical, anthropological and sociological study, despite the fact that the available sources, which were written by the elites, rarely[…]

The Woman Who Boycotted Sugar to Abolish Slavery in the British Empire

Exploring the first boycott against sugar made with slave labor in the West Indies. Introduction While many companies have trumpeted their support for the Black Lives Matter movement, others are beginning to face consumer pressure for not appearing to do enough. For example, some people are advocating a consumer boycott of Starbucks over an internal[…]

Big Alex McKenzie and the Last Great Fraud of the Gilded Age

Alexander McKenzie’s plot to corner Alaska’s gold proved to be the last great swindle of the original gilded age. Gold! With the discovery of this treasure in bountiful quantities, the Alaska gold rush of 1900 became the maddest dash of its kind since the 49ers swarmed California a half century earlier. The gold fields of[…]

A Brief Historical Overview of FDR’s Two ‘New Deals’

The term New Deal derives from Franklin Roosevelt’s 1932 speech accepting the Democratic Party’s nomination for president. Introduction The New Deal was a set of domestic policies enacted under President Franklin D. Roosevelt that dramatically expanded the federal government’s role in the economy in response to the Great Depression. Historians commonly speak of a First[…]

Guilds: Skilled Privilege in the Middle Ages

Introduction A guild is an association of artisans or merchants who oversee the practice of their craft/trade in a particular area. The earliest types of guild formed as confraternities of tradesmen, normally operating in a single city and covering a single trade. They were organized in a manner something between a professional association, a trade[…]

The History of Loans and Their Importance

There are dozens of different ways to view history. You can see history from the perspective of technologies, in which case you read the world in terms of the Agricultural Revolution, and the Industrial Revolution. You can think biologically, in Darwinian terms of evolution and survival of the fittest. You can think militarily, comparing the[…]

5 Jobsearch Tips in the Era of Coronavirus

The global pandemic has harmed the jobs market. However, this does not mean that there are no opportunities available. Businesses are still advertising jobs online. If you are looking for work, you need to give yourself the best opportunity of being successful. There are certain things that you can do to help make this happen.[…]

Pablo Giancaterino Examines Martin Guzman’s Newest Proposal

Pablo Giancaterino, an Argentina based attorney working with Miami, Florida lawyer Michael Diaz Jr. of Diaz Reus Targ in Miami, recently took a hard look at the latest proposal from the minister of economy in Argentina, Martin Guzman. One of the experts at the law firm in regards to anything going on in Argentina, he[…]

Wisconsin and the Economic Impacts of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic

While there were economic consequences of the 1918 pandemic, most were found to be short-lived. Introduction The 1918 influenza pandemic and how the ordeal played out in Wisconsin illuminates the scale at which the experience of and response to public health emergencies impact both human lives and the economy. Also known as the “Spanish Flu,”[…]

Manufacturing and Industries in Colonial Jamestown

When the Virginia Company established a colony at Jamestown in 1607, they hoped that a wide array of materials could be tapped or produced. Brewing in the Seventeenth Century Oh we can make liquor to sweeten our lipsOf pumpkins, of parsnips, of walnut-tree chips. New England rhyme On May 24, 1607, the newly-arrived colonists at[…]

An Overview of the Gilded Age in the Late Nineteenth Century

The late 19th century saw the creation of a modern industrial economy during the rise of robber barons and corporate buccaneers. Introduction Mark Twain called the late 19th century the “Gilded Age.” By this, he meant that the period was glittering on the surface but corrupt underneath. In the popular view, the late 19th century[…]

Travel, Transport, and Communications in Victorian England

During Queen Victoria’s reign Britain was the most powerful trading nation in the world. Introduction Victorian advances in transport and communications sparked a social, cultural and economic revolution whose effects are still evident today. The railway network flourished between 1830 and 1870. By 1852 there were over 7,000 miles of rail track in England and[…]

An Overview of the Economy of Ancient China

Trade routes spanned China in early Shang dynasty times, but it was from mid-Zhou times that commerce expanded markedly. Agriculture The great majority of the people lived in farming villages, carrying out a host of tasks to grow their crops – sowing, ploughing, weeding, harvesting, storing  – and keep themselves fed, clothed and housed –[…]

Crisis and Corruption: Bloody Consequences in Ancient Athens

Looking past a plague at how a massive government spending plan went badly awry 2,500 years ago. Introduction The jump in federal spending in response to the crisis of the coronavirus pandemic is not a new idea. Nearly 2,500 years ago, the people of ancient Athens had a similar plan – which succeeded in meeting[…]

Financial Intermediation in the Early Roman Empire

Evaluating the effectiveness of financial markets in the early Roman Empire. Abstract Here I use a theoretical hierarchy of financial sources to evaluate the effectiveness of financial markets in the early Roman Empire. I first review the theory of financial intermediation to describe the hierarchy of financial sources and survey briefly the history of financial[…]