Big Alex McKenzie and the Last Great Fraud of the Gilded Age

Alexander McKenzie’s plot to corner Alaska’s gold proved to be the last great swindle of the original gilded age. Gold! With the discovery of this treasure in bountiful quantities, the Alaska gold rush of 1900 became the maddest dash of its kind since the 49ers swarmed California a half century earlier. The gold fields of[…]

A Brief Historical Overview of FDR’s Two ‘New Deals’

The term New Deal derives from Franklin Roosevelt’s 1932 speech accepting the Democratic Party’s nomination for president. Introduction The New Deal was a set of domestic policies enacted under President Franklin D. Roosevelt that dramatically expanded the federal government’s role in the economy in response to the Great Depression. Historians commonly speak of a First[…]

Guilds: Skilled Privilege in the Middle Ages

Introduction A guild is an association of artisans or merchants who oversee the practice of their craft/trade in a particular area. The earliest types of guild formed as confraternities of tradesmen, normally operating in a single city and covering a single trade. They were organized in a manner something between a professional association, a trade[…]

The History of Loans and Their Importance

There are dozens of different ways to view history. You can see history from the perspective of technologies, in which case you read the world in terms of the Agricultural Revolution, and the Industrial Revolution. You can think biologically, in Darwinian terms of evolution and survival of the fittest. You can think militarily, comparing the[…]

5 Jobsearch Tips in the Era of Coronavirus

The global pandemic has harmed the jobs market. However, this does not mean that there are no opportunities available. Businesses are still advertising jobs online. If you are looking for work, you need to give yourself the best opportunity of being successful. There are certain things that you can do to help make this happen.[…]

Pablo Giancaterino Examines Martin Guzman’s Newest Proposal

Pablo Giancaterino, an Argentina based attorney working with Miami, Florida lawyer Michael Diaz Jr. of Diaz Reus Targ in Miami, recently took a hard look at the latest proposal from the minister of economy in Argentina, Martin Guzman. One of the experts at the law firm in regards to anything going on in Argentina, he[…]

Wisconsin and the Economic Impacts of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic

While there were economic consequences of the 1918 pandemic, most were found to be short-lived. Introduction The 1918 influenza pandemic and how the ordeal played out in Wisconsin illuminates the scale at which the experience of and response to public health emergencies impact both human lives and the economy. Also known as the “Spanish Flu,”[…]

Manufacturing and Industries in Colonial Jamestown

When the Virginia Company established a colony at Jamestown in 1607, they hoped that a wide array of materials could be tapped or produced. Brewing in the Seventeenth Century Oh we can make liquor to sweeten our lipsOf pumpkins, of parsnips, of walnut-tree chips. New England rhyme On May 24, 1607, the newly-arrived colonists at[…]

An Overview of the Gilded Age in the Late Nineteenth Century

The late 19th century saw the creation of a modern industrial economy during the rise of robber barons and corporate buccaneers. Introduction Mark Twain called the late 19th century the “Gilded Age.” By this, he meant that the period was glittering on the surface but corrupt underneath. In the popular view, the late 19th century[…]

Travel, Transport, and Communications in Victorian England

During Queen Victoria’s reign Britain was the most powerful trading nation in the world. Introduction Victorian advances in transport and communications sparked a social, cultural and economic revolution whose effects are still evident today. The railway network flourished between 1830 and 1870. By 1852 there were over 7,000 miles of rail track in England and[…]

An Overview of the Economy of Ancient China

Trade routes spanned China in early Shang dynasty times, but it was from mid-Zhou times that commerce expanded markedly. Agriculture The great majority of the people lived in farming villages, carrying out a host of tasks to grow their crops – sowing, ploughing, weeding, harvesting, storing  – and keep themselves fed, clothed and housed –[…]

Crisis and Corruption: Bloody Consequences in Ancient Athens

Looking past a plague at how a massive government spending plan went badly awry 2,500 years ago. Introduction The jump in federal spending in response to the crisis of the coronavirus pandemic is not a new idea. Nearly 2,500 years ago, the people of ancient Athens had a similar plan – which succeeded in meeting[…]

Financial Intermediation in the Early Roman Empire

Evaluating the effectiveness of financial markets in the early Roman Empire. Abstract Here I use a theoretical hierarchy of financial sources to evaluate the effectiveness of financial markets in the early Roman Empire. I first review the theory of financial intermediation to describe the hierarchy of financial sources and survey briefly the history of financial[…]

Trade in Ancient Greece

The earliest written sources of Homer and Hesiod attest to the existence of trade (emporia) and merchants (emporoi) from the 8th century BCE. Introduction Trade was a fundamental aspect of the ancient Greek world and following territorial expansion, an increase in population movements, and innovations in transport, goods could be bought, sold, and exchanged in[…]

3 Tips for Dealing with Financial Stress Effectively

If you’re stressed about money, rest assured you are far from alone. In fact, a recent survey from Northwestern Mutual identified money as the leading source of stress in America — with 44 percent of respondents attributing their anxieties first and foremost to finances. To put this figure in perspective, consider the fact that significantly[…]

The 7 Ways to Make Money With Property Investing

Most people understand that it’s possible to make money with smart property investments, but they may not know that there are many different ways to make money—and you can choose to optimize for any number of them. Different real estate investors rely on different approaches; for some, it’s better to optimize for a stable, consistent[…]

Multi-Family Investment Options: Important Things to Consider

Real estate has several options and alternatives for investors. If you can’t withstand the instability of the stock market, you can consider multi-family investing. A multi-family home offers terrific income potential and financial freedom. If you want a quick appreciation in your portfolio, feel free to invest in multi-family properties. You will get a steady[…]

Investment Benefits for Owner-Occupied and Medical Buildings

A real estate investor can use diverse investment strategies to generate steady income. Nowadays, the concept of owner-occupied real estate buildings is becoming popular. These are commercial or multi-unit residential real estate properties. Owners choose to reside in one of the units and earn rental income from remaining units. You can find two types of[…]

The Importance of Foreign Trade after the American Revolution

In the years following the American Revolution, speed was the most important consideration for ships. Introduction The world that the former British colonies entered as the newly independent United States was one in which countries closely controlled their domestic and international economies. European countries had been practicing mercantilism from the 16th century on as each[…]

Retail Properties: Evaluate the Possibility of Gains

Do you want steady income and cash flow? Investment in strip malls or net leased properties can be a good idea. It is essential to comprehend the complicated factors in this investment to increase your chances of success. Here are some critical factors to understand: Financing options Lease options Property control Better Return from Commercial[…]

Long Term Benefits of Commercial Real Estate Investing

Entrepreneurs continuously hunt for new investment methods to increase their ROI (return on investment). They always prefer commercial real estate investment because of its benefits. High potential revenue and historical performance are important factors behind its popularity. See the long term benefits of profitable real estate investment. Better Profit and Limited Risk Profit is the[…]

Exports for Precious Metals: Mercantilism in the Early Modern World

Mercantilism was a political movement and an economic theory, dominant in Europe between 1600 and 1800. Introduction Mercantilism is an economic system that dominated the major European trading nations during the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries. This “mercantile system” was based on the premise that national wealth and power were best served by increasing exports[…]

It All Began at Sutter’s Mill in 1848: An Overview of the California Gold Rush

This massive migration to California transformed the state’s landscape and population. Introduction On January 8, 1848, James W. Marshall, overseeing the construction of a sawmill at Sutter’s Mill in the territory of California, literally struck gold. His discovery of trace flecks of the precious metal in the soil at the bottom of the American River[…]

Comic Gold: The Easterner Goes West in Three Early American Comics

Looking at the effete 19th-century Eastern urbanite who traveled to the Wild West in quest of a fortune. This article, Brilliant Visions: Peyote among the Aesthetes, was originally published in The Public Domain Review under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0. If you wish to reuse it please see: https://publicdomainreview.org/legal/ The California Gold Rush transformed the landscape and[…]

When Department Stores Were More than Just Stores in Australia

Australia’s Foy & Gibson department store once dominated Melbourne, with showrooms, factories and warehouses spread over 500,000 square feet, and while it no longer exists, its legacy lives on. Introduction In 1870, an Irish draper named Mark Foy set up a business on Melbourne’s now-hipster Smith Street called Foy’s. What began as a drapery went[…]

The Haymarket Affair: Labor Exploitation and Violence in Chicago, 1886

Introduction The Haymarket affair (also known as the Haymarket riot or Haymarket massacre) on Tuesday May 4, 1886, in Chicago, began as a rally in support of striking workers. The strikes began on May 1st in Chicago and other locations in support of an eight hour work day. After several days of strikes, an unknown[…]

An Historical Overview of Ancient Economic Thought

Discussions of economics have existed since ancient times but it was not a separate discipline until the nineteenth century. Introduction In the history of economic thought, early economic thought refers to ideas from before and during the Middle Ages. The earliest discussions of economics date back to ancient times, such as Chanakya’s Arthashastra or Xenophon’s[…]