Bartram’s Garden and a Compromise of the Founders in 1787

During the contentious deliberations in 1787, an excursion into the country provided a welcome diversion for a handful of delegates. By Diane M. Bitting Their destination on that July morning: the nearby garden of renowned Quaker botanist John Bartram. According to an account in the 2011 book Founding Gardenersby Andrea Wulf, that visit may have led[…]

James Madison’s Role in Ratifying the Constitution and Adopting the Bill of Rights

Examining the most significant Madison holographs related to the drafting and ratification of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. Madison’s Family Tree According to the editors of his papers, James Madison prepared this family tree between 1813 and 1819. His father, James Madison, Sr. (1723-1801), and his mother, Nelly Conway Madison (1732-1829), were married[…]