European Immigration to America and Colonization

Eventually, the entire Western Hemisphere would come under the domination of European nations, leading to profound changes to its landscape, indigenous population, and plant and animal life. Introduction The start of the European Colonization of the Americas is typically dated to 1492, although there was at least one earlier colonization effort. The first known Europeans[…]

The Phasing-Out of 18th-Century Patterns of German Migration to the United States after 1817

The years 1816 to 1819 saw the last wave of immigration into the United States that basically followed patterns of travel, finance, and trade established in the 1700s. Introduction The years 1816 to 1819, at the beginning of the 19th century, saw the last wave of immigration into the United States that basically followed patterns of[…]

A History of Evolving Meaning in the Statue of Liberty

It has meant different things to different people at different times, which is part of its genius. Abolition In 1886, The Statue of Liberty was a symbol of democratic government and Enlightenment ideals as well as a celebration of the Union’s victory in the American Civil War and the abolition of slavery. Edouard de Laboulaye,[…]

Colonial Circuits between Europe and Asia in the 19th and Early 20th Centuries

The emergence of colonial migration circuits between Europe and Asia followed the ascendency of European mercantile and military power. Introduction The emergence of colonial migration circuits between Europe and Asia followed the ascendency of European mercantile and military power. In the early 19th century, the European presence in Asia was still extremely modest and very[…]

A History of the Many Conflicting Identities of the Statue of Liberty

Eastern and Western, feminine and masculine, motherly yet ready for war, the sculpture holds a multitude of meanings. The Statue of Liberty’s creator, the Alsatian artist Frédéric-Auguste Bartholdi, grew up in a world apart from the “huddled masses” who arrived in the New World, sailing toward her beacon. Born in 1834, into a rich and[…]

A Brief Overview of Immigration in the Late 19th and Early 20th Centuries

An overview of the “new immigration” that originated from Southern and Eastern Europe and American responses to it. Between 1880 and 1910, almost fifteen million immigrants entered the United States, a number which dwarfed immigration figures for previous periods. Unlike earlier nineteenth century immigration, which consisted primarily of immigrants from Northern Europe, the bulk of[…]

Jewish Migration from 1500 to the 20th Century

The beginnings of Hamburg’s Jewish community are linked to the Jews’ expulsion from the Iberian Peninsula at the end of the 15th century. Introduction The term migration is used to describe different, interconnected processes, especially mobility, immigration and emigration, internal migration, labor migration, seasonal migration, flight and expulsion. Among the most extreme forms of forced[…]

Border Security in Ancient Rome

There are lessons from ancient history that could prove instructive. A caravan of Goths – the Thervingi and the Greuthungi – were massing along the Danube river, at the border of the Roman Empire. This was not an invading army, but men, women, and children fleeing the enemy at their backs: a seemingly invincible army[…]

Historical Processes of Europeanization

The majority of these processes played out over the long-term, but accelerated since the second half of the 18th century. Introduction Processes resulting in the development of a single European culture can be bundled under the term Europeanization. The majority of these processes played out over the long-term, but accelerated since the second half of[…]

Immigration to America in the Late 19th and Early 20th Centuries

Groups who opposed immigration and those attempting to help immigrants during the period from 1877 to 1925. Introduction “Immigration of some kind,” the historian John Higham has written, “is one of the constants of American history, called forth by the energies of capitalism and the attractions of regulated freedom.” This constancy did not preclude alternating[…]

Jewish Immigration during the Revolutionary War

Jews were not welcomed everywhere in the colonies, but they established small communities. Not many Jews immigrated to the United States before about 1820, but the 350th anniversary of Jewish settlement in America was celebrated in 2004 to mark the arrival in New Amsterdam (New York City) in 1654 of a group of two dozen[…]

Four Waves of Immigration from the Colonial Period to Today

America was seen as the promised land by the oppressed and exploited masses. By Åse Elin LangelandHistorian Introduction Immigration to the United States was influenced by both push and pull factors. The push factors were what drove the immigrants from their country such as religious persecution, political oppression and poverty. The pull factors were those[…]

Migration to and from Germany, 17th Century to Today

Germany can look back on a long history of migration. By Dr. Vera Hanewinkel and Dr. Jochen OltmerProfessors of HisoryUniversität Osnabrück Migration Flows during the 17th, 18th and 19th Centuries The Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648) led to serious destruction and a significant reduction in population in some German regions. The respective sovereigns therefore recruited employable[…]

Following a Migrant Route through Dust Bowl Camps of the 1930s

This network of FSA camps—the series of communities designed to be occupied and left on a seasonal basis—served the basic needs of their temporary residents. I still don’t know where I’ll be staying tonight. But I’ve accomplished the few tasks I needed to get done by this evening. I have a rental car that is[…]

Diverse, Fragile and Fragmented: European Migration Since the Mid-20th Century

Examining political events and economic forces shaping contemporary migration within and into Europe.    By Dr. Russell King (left) and Dr. Marek Okólski (right)King: Professor of Geography, Sussex Centre for Migration Research, University of SussexOkólski: Professor of Political Science, Uczelnia Łazarskiego Abstract In this paper we review the significant political events and economic forces shaping contemporary migration[…]

From Migrant Food to Lifestyle Cooking: The Career of Italian Cuisine in Europe

Examining the reception of Italian cuisine in Europe with the early modern and modern movement of migrants and tourists. Abstract In recent decades, Italian cuisine has had a greater impact upon the development of eating habits than any other national cuisine. Spaghetti, pizza, tiramisù und espresso are ubiquitous in Europe and North America. This article[…]

Migrants: When Europeans Once Flocked to North African Shores

When we think of migrants, we think of them crossing the Mediterranean to come to Europe. Yet 200 years ago, many did it the other way. “Praise be to God. To my master, may god preserve you. After our master scolded me and became angry with me, accusing me of having often acted without advising him, and of bringing my[…]

Emigration: Colonial Circuits between Europe and Asia in the 19th and Early 20th Centuries

Examining comparisons and connections between British and Dutch migration circuits with Asia. Introduction The emergence of colonial migration circuits between Europe and Asia followed the ascendency of European mercantile and military power. In the early 19th century, the European presence in Asia was still extremely modest and very much involved in intra-Asian migration and trading circuits.[…]

Migration from the Colonies to Western Europe since 1800

   By Dr. Pieter C. Emmer (left) and Dr. Leo Lucassen (right)Emmer: Professor Emeritus of HistoryLucassen: Professor of Global Labour and Migration HistoryLeiden University Abstract Colonialism not only stimulated more than 60 million Europeans to migrate overseas, it also brought millions of Asians, Africans and Amerindians to Europe. In the beginning, many of these immigrants[…]

Emigration Across the Atlantic: Irish, Italians and Swedes Compared, 1800–1950

Examining scale of emigration, the reasons behind emigrants’ departure, the various origins and destinations, and the attitudes in sender and receiver states. Abstract Emigration across the Atlantic by Europeans during the 19th and 20th centuries, and especially during the so-called age of mass European migration from 1850 to 1914, forms a key part of Europe’s recent[…]