The Siege and Fall of Ancient Tyre to Alexander the Great in 332 BCE

Alexander, unable to attack from the sea, built causeway stretching out to the island on a natural land bridge no more than two meters deep. Introduction The Siege of Tyre was orchestrated by Alexander the Great in 332 BC during his campaigns against the Persians. The Macedonian army was unable to capture the city, which[…]

Daily Life and Commercial Activities in Ancient Roman Macedonia

Examining the guilds and professional associations driving ancient commerce in Hellenistic Roman Macedon. Establishment of a New Political Reality In 168-167 BC, we have the dissolution of the Macedonian kingdom by the Romans and a new political reality in the region. Aemilius Paullus, the victor of Pydna, gathered the representatives of Macedonian poleis and ethne[…]

Alexander I the Philhellene and Reform of the Ancient Macedonian Army

He is known for his participation in the Olympic Games and his attempt to expand his kingdom and reform the Macedonian army. Introduction Alexander I of Macedon, also known as Alexander I the Philhellene (‘friend of the Greeks’) or ‘The Wealthy’, was king of ancient Macedon from around 498 to 454 BCE. He is known for the role he[…]

An Ill-Defined Rule: Cassander’s Consolidation of Power in Ancient Macedonia

Cassander embarked on an ambitious plan to control the region and solidify his power in Macedonia. Cassander’s implementation of power during the early stages of his rule of Macedonia was wide ranging and multifaceted. He employed numerous different strategies to gain support from a variety of influential groups within the Macedonian homeland and adjacent areas[…]

The Ancient Royal Macedonian Tombs at Vergina

A new generation of forensics has turned up surprising results and taken us closer to establishing just who was buried and when. Introduction Excavations at Vergina in northern Greece in the late 1970s CE unearthed a cluster of tombs thought to be the burial site of Philip II (r. 359-336 BCE), the father of Alexander[…]

Hephaestion: Alexander the Great’s Personal Bodyguard and Closest Friend

Throughout his life, Hephaestion remained close to Alexander, serving both as a valuable advisor and friend. Introduction Hephaestion was a member of Alexander the Great’s personal bodyguard and the Macedonian king’s closest and lifelong friend and advisor. So much so, Hephaestion’s death would bring the young king to tears. From 334 to 323 BCE Alexander[…]

The Battle of Issus: Alexander’s Rematch with Darius

Darius took personal command of his army for this encounter and led them to a resounding defeat. Introduction The Battle of Issus (also Issos) occurred in southern Anatolia, on November 5, 333 BC between the Hellenic League led by Alexander the Great and the Achaemenid Empire, led by Darius III, in the second great battle[…]

Battle of the Granicus: Alexander the Great’s Opening Move on Persia

It was here, against all odds, that Alexander defeated the forces of the Persian satraps of Asia Minor. Introduction The Battle of the Granicus River in May 334 BC was the first of three major battles fought between Alexander the Great and the Persian Empire. Fought in northwestern Asia Minor, near the site of Troy,[…]

Alexander the Great’s Defeat of Darius at the Battle of the Granicus River, 334 BCE

The attack had been six years in the making, and still, the Persians were not fully prepared. War between the Persians and Macedonians had become inevitable when Persia had supported the Perinthians’ resistance against Macedonian aggression in 340. When the Macedonian king Philip II had secured his rear in the battle of Chaeronea (338), he wanted to launch a campaign east of[…]