The Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy, 1309-1377

The Papacy in the Late Middle Ages had a major secular role in addition to its spiritual role. Introduction In the history of the Roman Catholic Church, the Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1377 during which seven popes, all French, resided in Avignon: In 1378, Gregory XI moved the papal residence back[…]

The Political Power of Pope in the Middle Ages

Even medievalists have a hard time determining the precise moment when the Middle Ages started and ended. There’s a relative consensus that it started with Augustine and lasted after the birth of Descartes. That would put us in a rough frame between the mid-fourth and the early seventeenth century. Yes; it means that the Middle[…]