The Sea Dogs: Queen Elizabeth’s Marauding Privateers in the New World

Spain’s huge empire in the Americas was a tempting source of wealth for rival European powers. Introduction The sea dogs, as they were disparagingly called by the Spanish authorities, were privateers who, with the consent and sometimes financial support of Elizabeth I of England (r. 1558-1603 CE), attacked and plundered Spanish colonial settlements and treasure[…]

The Elizabethan Religious Settlement in Late Medieval England

Many features of the Settlement remained in place and their effects can still be seen on today’s Anglican Church. Introduction The Elizabethan Religious Settlement was a collection of laws and decisions concerning religious practices introduced between 1558-63 CE by Elizabeth I of England (r. 1558-1603 CE). The settlement continued the English Reformation which had begun[…]