The Second Industrial Revolution, the Gilded Age, and Robber Barons

The term “robber baron” described powerful 19th-century industrialists who used questionable practices to amass their wealth. Introduction The Second Industrial Revolution, also known as the “Technological Revolution,” was a phase of rapid industrialization in the final third of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century. The First Industrial Revolution, which ended in[…]

Raubritter: Medieval and Early Modern European Robber Barons

Medieval robber barons most often imposed high or unauthorized tolls on rivers or roads passing through their territory. Introduction A robber baron or robber knight (German: Raubritter) was an unscrupulous feudal landowner who, protected by his fief’s legal status, imposed high taxes and tolls out of keeping with the norm without authorization by some higher[…]