The Library of Celsus in Ancient Ephesus

This was a great center of learning and early Christian scholarship during the Roman period. By Mark CartwrightHistorian Introduction The Library of Celsus in ancient Ephesus, located in western Turkey, was a repository of over 12,000 scrolls and one of the most impressive buildings in the Roman Empire. Constructed in the 2nd century CE, it[…]

Antiochia ad Cragum: Deserted City of Ancient Cilicia Trachea

The city was located in an area previously associated with the Cilician pirates. Introduction Antiochia ad Cragum (“Antioch on the Cliffs” or “Antioch at Cragus”) was a Hellenistic Roman city located in Cilicia Trachea (“Rough Cilicia”, also known as Cilicia Aspera and Cilicia Secunda) on the southern coast of modern-day Turkey (in the Gazipasa district of the Antalya province). It was founded c.[…]

Foreign Influences and Imported Luxuries in Ancient Thrace

A substantial amount of the artifacts in the Thracian archaeological record comes from diverse cultural and stylistic traditions. By Teodora A. Nikolova Introduction Defining Thracian art is a difficult task due to the fact that what we call today Thrace was never a single unified state but, rather, a collection of many independent communities (or[…]

Conflict and Celts: The Creation of Ancient Galatia

Galatia was situated in eastern Phrygia, a region now within modern-day Turkey. By Jeffrey KingHistorian Introduction Galatia was the most long-lasting and powerful Celtic settlement outside of Europe. It was the only kingdom of note to be forged during the Celtic invasions of the Mediterranean in the 4th and 3rd centuries BCE. From its foundation,[…]

Ancient Antioch and the Tetrapolis of the Seleucid Empire

This tetrapolis (“land of four cities”) was to remain the core of the Seleucid Empire. Antioch was probably founded in 307 BCE as Antigoneia by one of the successors of the Macedonian conqueror Alexander the Great, Antigonus Monophthalmus. The details are unclear, but we know of the existence of this earlier city, and we know it was more ore less in[…]

The History, Culture, and Religion of the Tatars

In 1920 the Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was declared. History The first settlements in the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan date back to Palaeolithic period (about 100,000 years ago). In the 8th – 9th centuries, the tribes of ancient Bulgars, ancestors of the modern Tatars, began to populate the Volga region . The[…]

Lycia: Mysterious Sea Peoples of Ancient Southwest Anatolia

Lycians are associated with a group known as the Sea Peoples in Hittite and Egyptian texts. Introduction Lycia is a mountainous region in south-west Anatolia (also known as Asia Minor, modern-day Turkey). The earliest references to Lycia can be traced through Hittite texts to sometime before 1200 BCE, where it is known as the Lukka[…]

Side: The ‘Pomegranate’ Greek Colony in Ancient Anatolia (Modern Turkey)

Strabo tells us that the city of Side was founded around the 7th century BCE by Greek colonizers from Kyme in Aeolis. By Dr. Jenni IrvingAncient Historian Introduction Side (Σίδη, meaning pomegranate) is located in the region of Pamphylia in Anatolia (modern-day Turkey) and was both a prosperous Aegean trading centre in Hellenistic and Roman[…]

Ottoman-Era Photographs Take on New Meaning in Their Digital Life

Thousands of images from the Pierre de Gigord Collection are now accessible online. By Isotta PoggiDepartment of Acquisitions of Exhibitions and PhotographsGetty Research Institute Introduction In the 1980s the French collector Pierre de Gigord traveled to Turkey and collected thousands of Ottoman-era photographs in a variety of media and formats. The resulting Pierre de Gigord Collection[…]

A Triumvirate of Tyranny: The Three Pashas and the Armenian Genocide

Until the late ninteenth century, the Armenians were referred to as millet-i sadika (loyal nation) by the Ottomans. Introduction The Armenian Genocide—also known as the Armenian Holocaust, Great Calamity or the Armenian Massacre—refers to the forced mass evacuation and related deaths of hundreds of thousands or over a million Armenians, during the government of the Young Turks from 1915 to[…]

Göbekli Tepe: The World’s First Temple?

The fact that hunter–gatherer peoples could organize the construction of such a complex site as far back as the 10th or 11th millennium BC poses a serious challenge to the conventional view of the rise of civilization. Introduction Located in modern Turkey, Göbekli Tepe is one of the most important archaeological sites in the world. The[…]

Ottoman-Era Photographs Take on New Meaning in Their Digital Life

Thousands of images from the Pierre de Gigord Collection are now accessible online. By Isotta PoggiAcquisitions and Exhibitions of PhotographsGetty Institute In the 1980s the French collector Pierre de Gigord traveled to Turkey and collected thousands of Ottoman-era photographs in a variety of media and formats. The resulting Pierre de Gigord Collection is now housed in[…]